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  1. Underground Railway — 2019-10-23 19:35:16
    … capital cities around the world who all wanted their own **Metro**. In 1890 the first underground electric railway opened, the City and South London, which ran from near the Bank of England under the Thame…
  2. Lawn Mower — 2019-10-04 13:03:35
    …oy.gif" class="right" title="Modern mower" width="" }} >>{{image url="Sumner_motorised_lawn_mower.jpg" }}>> One of the first of Budding and Ferrabee machines was used in **Regent's Park Zoological Gardens** in London [[Zoo]], in **1831**. It to…
  3. Atomic Clock — 2019-09-01 00:59:46
    …}} === Louis Essen and Jack Parry 1955 === ~-[[CategoryScience]] In 1955, Louis Essen and Jack Parry built the world's first caesium atomic clock at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, [[Middlesex]]. == From Quartz == An Atomic c…
    …bservatories throughout the world. {{Image url="AtomicClock.jpg" class="left" title="Jack Parry & Louis Essen with the first Atomic Clock 1955" width="700" }} ::c:: == Atomic Clock == Essen based his clock on caesium because ~& 'An atom will…
    …nd, a microwave cavity in the middle probing the atoms frequency and a sensitive detector at the other end. When it was first put in to operation, it was accurate to one second in 300 years. == Links == [[http://www.npl.co.uk/60-years-of-the-a…
  4. Bungee Jumping — 2019-08-31 01:05:32
    …] == Bungee Jumping 1979 == {{Image url="Clifton-suspension-bridge.jpg" class="right" title="Clifton suspension bridge first bungy jump" width="400" }} /* event_date="1 April 1979" First Bungee jump off Clifton bridge */ The world's first Bun…
    …ion Bridge in** Bristol, [[Gloucestershire]], [[England]]. === David Kirke 1979 === David Kirke (born in 1946) was the first to //jump// of the bridge in top hat and tails and a bottle of champagne in hand followed by Simon Keeling. They used …
    … with jumps in the US from the Golden Gate and Royal Gorge bridges. {{Image url="BristolBungee.jpg" class="left" title="First Bungee jump 1979" width="250" }} == Tribal Beginnings == David Attenborough and a BBC film crew brought back footage o…
  5. Rubber — 2019-08-10 12:09:55
    …ses of being used in the manufacture of such articles, as the same may be applicable to'. But again Hancock got there first, in 1846 he had already patented his suggestion that his hardened rubber could be used for making moulds for softer rub…
  6. Cowboy — 2019-07-30 14:48:13
    …]] {{Image url="cowboy_horse.jpg" class="right" title="Modern conception of a cowboy" width="350" }} == Cowboy == The first reference of the word 'cowboy' is in Medieval Ireland/England. A cowboy was literally //boys tending cattle//, a young…
    …hor of Gulliver's Travels, in 1725 use of cowboy to refer to nothing more than a boy tending cows. == Buckaroo == The first use of the word “cowboy” in the U.S. is in the **New Orleans Picayune**, not referring to a man, but to a //race ho…
  7. Suffolk Punch — 2019-07-30 14:43:58
    …" title="Suffolk Punch" width="" }} === Suffolk 1586 === ~-[[Livestock]] The **Suffolk Punch** is a breed of work horse first mentioned in 1586. It takes its name from the county of [[Suffolk]] [[England]] and punch to describe its strength and …
  8. Disc Brakes — 2019-07-12 18:01:45
    …l 1892. He was fascinated by the Benz automobile that he saw at the 1889 Paris Exhibition. This led onto producing the first all British petrol car. Frederick with brothers George and Frank incorporated The Lanchester Engine Company Limited i…
  9. Stem Cells — 2019-06-01 23:13:53
    …r Martin Evans 1981 === ~-[[CategoryScience]]::[[Medical]] {{toc}} Along with **Matthew Kaufman** Martin Evans was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. Martin Evans who is [[Wales Welsh]] w…
    … They explored the method of using blastocysts for the isolation of **embryonic stem cells** or ES cells. ^^The very first name I gave to these was "ED," for embryo-derived, then "EK," as initials for Evans-Kaufman.^^ /* http://www.medscape.c…
  10. DNA — 2019-06-01 23:11:41
    …the train back to '''Cambridge University''' and, based on what he had heard and seen, he and Francis Crick built their first model of DNA. This was slightly unethical as they had a gentleman’s agreement that the team in London would work on D…
  11. Vitamins — 2019-06-01 23:10:23
    … September 1938" class="right" }} **William Fletcher** was born in 1872 in [[Leicestershire]], [[England]]. He was the first scientist to determine, that if special factors (vitamins) were removed from food, disease occurred. {{{toc}}} {{Image…
    …ilors that died from mal-nutrition was a serious problem. While at sea in May 1747 he conducted what is regarded as the first ever clinical trial, he proved that citrus fruits could cure **scurvy** but he could not conclude why, but on an unoffi…
    …e link between vitamins and health almost 200 years before Fletcher. /* event_date="May 1747" James Lind conducted the first clinical trial to confirm that citrus fruits could cure scurvy. */ == Links == [[http://munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk/Biogr…
  12. Zoo — 2019-05-29 17:57:12
    …itle="London zoo entrance" width="350" }} ::cl:: === Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles 1826 === /* event_date="April 27 1826" First zoo opens in London */ Opened April 27 **1826**, was initially called "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Societ…
    …ss="left" title="Bristol Zoo" width="300" }} Bristol Zoo in Clifton [[Gloucestershire]], the second oldest zoo, was the first to abbreviate zoological to 'Zoo'. …
  13. Hydroelectric Power — 2019-04-08 16:54:46
    … arc lamp was replaced in 1880 by [[Light_bulb| Joseph Swan's incandescent lamps]]. It was the first //'smart home'// with electric incandescent lighting, a dish washer, a vacuum cleaner and a washing machine. {{tag id…
  14. Agatha Christie — 2019-04-08 16:51:39
    …e wed Colonel Archibald Christie, a Royal Flying Corps pilot, and took up nursing during World War I. She published her first book, //The Mysterious Affair at Styles//, in **1920**. **Poirot** and **Miss Marple** are Christie's most well-known …
    …detectives. Agatha was one of Britain's first stand-up surfers. Christie did not have a formal education and taught herself to read. She wrote more than 70 detectiv…
  15. Railway — 2019-02-19 15:36:10
    …use in coalmines, nicknamed the 'Geordie'. == First Passengers == In 1821, the project to build the Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) began. The original plan was to…
    … Pease met Stephenson he agreed to change the plans. Work began in 1822, and in September 1825 Stephenson completed the first locomotive for the new railway: originally named Active, it was soon renamed Locomotion. The S&DR opened on 27 Septembe…
    … of coal and flour nine miles (15 km) in two hours, reaching a speed of 24 miles per hour (39 km/h) on one stretch. The first purpose-built passenger car, dubbed Experiment, was attached, and carried dignitaries on the opening journey. It was th…
    …e first time passenger traffic had been run on a steam locomotive railway. {{Image url="Gsrocket.jpg" title="Stephensons Rocket…
  16. Reflecting Telescope — 2019-02-19 15:29:12
    …~-[[CategoryScience]] {{Image url="IsaacNewton.jpg" class="right" width="200" }} Newton’s reflecting telescope is the first fully functional reflecting telescope. {{{toc}}} Isaac Newton, see [[Gravity]], was born in 1642 in a manor house in …
  17. KitKat — 2019-02-05 19:53:39
    …s="right" width="250" title="Original wrapper" }} === Rowntree 1935 === **Rowntree**'s chocolate covered wafer bar was first introduced in [[England]] in 1935 and was renamed #%KitKat#% in 1937. The best selling chocolate bar in the world began…
  18. Stan Laurel — 2019-01-14 16:14:46
    …pted the stage surname of Laurel. Laurel was offered $75 per week to star in two-reel comedies. After the making of his first film, //Nuts in May//, Universal offered him a contract. {{Image url="StanLaurelBplaque.jpg" class="right" title="Stan…
  19. Charlie Chaplin — 2019-01-08 01:18:05
    … == Chaplin's life was the ultimate rags to riches tale. His early years were spent with his mother with whom Charlie first appeared on stage with, at the age of five. But this did not provide enough income. Their father provided no support fo…
  20. Vacuum cleaner — 2018-12-26 13:21:55
    …''. to manufacture and market it. The Head Office was in Parsons Green Lane, in Fulham, South West London. He built his first machine in 1901. It was made for Osborne House, a training college for naval officers on the Isle of Wight. The machine…
    …oses were fed through the windows. It was originally powered by an oil engine, the electric motor was added later. The first cleaner worked out rather expensive at around £350. The bright red horse-drawn machine measured 4' 6" x 4' 10" x 3' 6"…
  21. Eraser — 2018-12-21 17:03:43
    …Eraser :: {{draft}} === Edward Nairne 1770 === Nairne produced the first [[rubber]] eraser, for an inventions competition. The invention was described by Joseph Priestley on April 15, 1770: …
  22. Cyclonic Vacuum Cleaner — 2018-11-17 15:12:06
    …thought he could improve this and set to work to solve this problem. Five years and 5,127 prototypes later, the world's first cyclonic bagless vacuum cleaner arrived. {{Image url="Dyson_DC01.jpg" class="left" title="Dyson DC01" width="250" }} =…
  23. Roundabout — 2018-10-12 14:09:43
    …-[[CategoryTransport]] {{Image url="SollershottCircus.jpg" class="right" title="Sollershott Circus" width="400" }} The first modern 'Roundabout' was built in Letchworth [[Hertfordshire]] in 1905 and called Sollershott Circus. {{Toc}} == Letchw…
  24. Beatles — 2018-10-12 13:59:50
    …d 1961 === Band members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. Forming around 1958 'The Beatles' first sessions in September 1962 produced a minor UK hit, "Love Me Do". == Beatlemania == **Beatlemania** began in Britain …
  25. Electric Toaster — 2018-10-12 13:33:05
    …electric toaster for bread. {{Image url="Toaster.jpg" title="Early toaster" class="right" width="300" }} {{{toc}}} == First Toaster == Crompton and Co. went on to develop the first electric toaster 1893 in Leeds England. This was the forerunn…
    …" }}<< Crompton's reputation was such that, in 1880, the chemist [[Light Bulb|Joseph Swan]] sought his opinion when he first developed incandescent lamps for indoor use. Crompton immediately saw the potential and, within a couple of years, his …
  26. Harry Potter — 2018-10-10 17:06:49
    …ry. == Family Home == {{Image url="Rowling_home.jpg" class="left" title="Rowling home" width="300" }} Rowling is the first author to become a **billionaire**. …
  27. Electric Motor — 2018-10-10 01:15:13
    …y the different metals. Dilute sulphuric acid was used to charge the battery. == Galvanometer == He also invented the first suspended coil galvanometer, a device for measuring current. Sturgeon died in poverty and is buried in an overlooked …
  28. James Bond — 2018-10-10 01:11:15
    …ay 1908 at 7 Green Street, [[London]] W1 [[England]]. He was the second son of Valentine and Eve Fleming. Ian Fleming's first boarding school, Durnford School, was based near Swanage in the Isle of Purbeck. Along with his brothers, Ian Fleming a…
    …yable and successful period and he particularly relished covering a notorious espionage trial in Russia. Ian Fleming's first biographer, John Pearson, has identified 15 January 1952 as the "birth date" of James Bond and reports that CASINO ROYA…
  29. Paternoster — 2018-09-18 13:06:34
    …" death_place="" }} === Peter Ellis - 1868 === ~-[[CategoryIndustry]]::[[CategoryTransport]] Peter Ellis installed the first paternoster lift or elevator in Oriel Chambers, Liverpool in 1868. He was born in Liverpool [[Lancashire]] on 1st Augus…
    … obtained a patent on a paternoster and in 1884, in Dartford, England, the engineering firm of J & E Hall installed its first "Cyclic Elevator", using Hart's patent, in a London office block. The Paternoster became very popular in Europe where …
    …ilding, designed by Peter Ellis, remains one of finest and most influential architectural design of its age. One of the first office buildings to use an iron framework structure, its innovative design had a considerable influence on office build…
  30. Elevator — 2018-09-18 13:05:45
    …port]] {{Image url="AscendingRoom.jpg" class="right" title="Ascending Room" width="" }} In 1823 Thomas Hornor built the first powered elevator he called the **“Ascending Room”**. Hornor opened his London Colosseum, designed by Decimus Burton…
    …y 1829 with it's lift to take tourists up to a platform to view the London skyline. /* event_date="10 January 1829" The first elevator goes into use. */ [[Zoo | Decimus Burton]] was an architect known for London **Wellington Arch** and Hornor w…
  31. Ice Cream Cone — 2018-09-12 18:00:23
    …ow [[London]]" death_date="29 July 1905" death_place="Pinner" }} === Agnes Marshall in 1888 === ~-[[CategoryFood]] The first recipe for an edible cone used to serve ice cream was in //Mrs Marshall's Cookery Book// printed in 1888. {{TOC}} Marsh…
  32. Bicycle — 2018-08-25 00:56:59
    …lthamstow" death_date="29 October 1901" death_place="" }} === John Kemp Starley 1885 === In 1885 Starley produced the first modern style bicycle, the **//Rover// Safety Bicycle**. //Cycling Magazine// said the 'Rover' had 'set the pattern t…
    … class="right" title="Rover Bicycle" width="400" }} In 1885 Starley produced the //Rover// Safety Bicycle. He was the first to use the term //Rover// for a mode of transport changing the company name from J. K. Starley and Co. to Rover Cycle…
  33. Antibiotics — 2018-08-25 00:36:50
    …st after dawn on September 28, 1928, I certainly didn't plan to revolutionise all medicine by discovering the **world's first antibiotic**, or bacteria killer," Fleming would later say, "But I suppose that was exactly what I did." {{Image url="…
  34. Public Park — 2018-08-24 15:01:46
    …h_place="Sydenham" }} [[CategoryInventions]]>[[CategorySociety]]=== Joseph Paxton 1847 === Joseph Paxton designed the first public park in **1847**. He was born in [[Bedfordshire]], [[England]] on 3 August 1803 into a farming family. {{{toc}…
    …}} == Birkenhead Park == **Birkenhead Park** is famous as the first public park in the world and has inspired the design of many other parks in Britain and around the world. It was the fi…
  35. TV Black and White Kiss — 2018-08-24 01:20:10
    …TV Black and White Kiss :: === Granada TV 1962 === {{Image url="BlackWhiteKiss.jpg" class="right" title="1962. First TV Interracial Kiss" width="440" }} ~-[[Arts]] The first //unambiguous// black and white interracial kiss was broadcast…
    … of a one-off play from Granada TV. It is a drama that looks at race, class and insecurity in Britain, and contains the first interracial kiss to be shown on TV. This was six years before **Kirk** kissed Uhura in **Star Trek** and that was beat…
  36. Nature Reserve — 2018-08-23 20:30:17
    …xplorer, built a nine-foot-high wall around three miles of his estate at '''Walton Hall''', turning it into the world's first '''nature reserve'''. == Walton Hall == '''Waterton''' (1782 - 1865) was born at Walton Hall, Wakefield, [[Yorkshire…
  37. Can — 2018-08-23 12:49:54
    … == Improved Production == In 1813, **John Hall** and **Bryan Dorkin**, acquired the Durand patent in 1811, opened the first commercial canning factory in England. The firm of Donkin, Hall and Gamble was later merged into Crosse & Blackwells. T…
  38. IVF — 2018-08-08 09:39:25
    …ence]] >[[Medical]] == In Vitro Fertilisation == === Steptoe, Edwards and Purdy 1977 === /* event_date="25 July 1978" First baby conceived by IVF is born */ **Patrick Christopher Steptoe** and **Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards** along with their …
    …echnician, **Jean Purdy** successfully carried out a pioneering conception which resulted in the birth of the **world's first baby** to be conceived by IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation AKA __Test Tube Baby__), Louise Brown on 25 July 1978, in Oldham …
    … been alone in the world.” {{image url="steptoe-and-edwards.jpg" class="left" title="Steptoe, Purdy and Edwards with first baby " width="250" }} == A Great Team == Both Steptoe and Edwards worked in the field of reproductive health before th…
  39. Toilet — 2018-07-24 21:40:11
    … birth_place="Kelston " death_date="20 November 1612" death_place="Kelston " }} === Sir John Harrington 1596 === The first flush toilet or water-closet was invented by Sir John Harrington in 1596. He was the godson to Queen Elizabeth I of [[E…
    …umming was a watchmaker and mechanician from Edinburgh (1732-1814). He invented the 'S'-shaped trap in 1775 and was the first to patent the flushing water closet. It used standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of fo…
    …5 he created the one-piece 'wash-out' toilet, called the 'Unitas'. This used a 'P'-shaped trap. In 1885, he created the first valveless toilet made of china. Other makers at this stage included Josiah Wedgwood, Thomas Crapper and John Shanks. =…
  40. Underwater Tunnel — 2018-07-23 22:04:41
    …ueville, France" death_date="12 Dec 1849" death_place="London" }} === Thames Tunnel 1843 === The Thames Tunnel was the first subaqueous tunnel constructed underneath a navigable river. It was built between 1825 and 1843 and designed by **Marc …
    …*". ::c:: Brunel was the third attempt to build a tunnel under the Thames. - 1799, Ralph Dodd (c. 1756-1822) was the first person to try but water leaks foiled the attempt. - 1805, Robert Vazie (b.1758) and Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) tri…
  41. Intraocular Lens — 2018-07-10 08:26:02
    … **never seek to profit** from this invention, a mark of //real// medical professionals, //service not self//. == The First Implant == {{Image url="Intraocular-lens.jpg" class="left" title="Intraocular lens" width="250" }} From 1946, Ridley wa…
    …s a consultant surgeon at St Thomas's, and on February 8th 1950, he became the first person to successfully implant an **artificial lens**. The operation was **televised**, another first, so that other op…
  42. Heroin — 2018-06-27 12:59:24
    …uthend" death_date="25/6/1894" death_place="" }} === Charles Romley Alder Wright 1874 === ~-[[Medical]] Charles Wright first synthesized Diamorphine in 1874 while working at St. Mary's hospital in [[London]]. {{TOC}} Wright was searching for a…
  43. Miss World — 2018-06-27 12:49:19
    …n, London" death_date="9/11/2000" death_place="London" }} === Eric Morley 1951 === ~-[[Entertainment]] Miss World, the first international beauty pageant, was created in Britain by Eric Morley in **1951**. It was held on 29 July 1951 at the L…
    …it of the time. The press saw it as an international event because some of the entrants came from around the world. == First Winner == The winner was Kerstin 'Kiki' Håkansson from Stockholm, Sweden. {{Image url="MissWorld1951.jpg" class="left…
  44. Jet Engine — 2018-05-28 18:47:28
    …Whittle to design a plane. The engine was built from various test parts and they called it the W.1X, which ran for the first time on '''December 14, 1940'''. This engine powered the Gloster E.28/39 for taxi testing when it took to the air for a…
    …ttleArches.jpg" width="320" class="left" title="Whittle Arch in Coventry" }} A redevelopment of the Airfield where the first test took place near Brockworth has been named the 'Whittle Centre' it includes a pub called the **Whittle**. == Shrin…
  45. Motor Racing Circuit — 2018-05-20 20:38:53
    …width="300" birth_date=" 7 October 1848" birth_place="Chertsey" death_date="28 Jan 1926" death_place="" }} The world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit was built near Weybridge in [[Surrey]], [[England]] in 1907. === Hugh Locke King 19…
  46. Digital Photography — 2018-04-22 17:12:31
    … Michael Tompsett, Eric Fossum, George Smith (not pictured) and Nobukazu Teranishi. Michael Francis Tompsett filed the first CCD imaging [[http://www.google.com/patents/US4085456 | patent in 1971]]…
  47. Stainless Steel — 2018-04-01 00:54:33
    …"14 July 1948" death_place="Torquay" }} === Harry Brearley 1913 === [[CategoryIndustry]]::[[CategoryDomestic]] Brearley first produced his 'Rustless Steel' in an electric furnace on 13 August 1913. {{TOC}} == Determination == Harry was born i…
  48. Four-minute Mile — 2018-03-04 19:41:50
    …3, 1929" birth_place="Harrow" death_date="3 March 2018" death_place="" }} [[CategorySport]] == Four-minute Mile == The first person to run the mile in under four minutes was first achieved on 6 May 1954 by **Roger Bannister** in 3:59.4 that's 3…
    …ing the world’s record for that distance. Bannister pushed on to the mile and passed the finish line. As soon as the first part of his score was announced **“three minutes…”** the crowd erupted with elation. …
  49. Plastic — 2018-01-25 10:47:21
    …hemist and inventor noted for his development of various industrial processes and materials and for having invented the first plastic that Parkes patented in **1856** ||{{{toc}}}||{{amazon type="book" items="0887307329" }}|| == Celluloid called…
    …o the invention of a new material which he called '''Parkesine'''. Parkesine was based on cellulose nitrate and was the first plastic. Parkes observed that the solid residue left after the evaporation of the solvent of photographic collodion was…
  50. Worcestershire Sauce — 2018-01-13 11:02:07
    …ire Sauce''' was '''invented''' and in 1837 began to be produced commercially. == How Original == But this was not the first mention of **"Worcester sauce"**. A local delicacy from the river Severn was the Lamprey fish and local traders had be…
  51. Airport — 2017-12-29 20:44:50
    …port :: [[CategoryTransport]] === Southampton 1919 === {{Image url="Air-Port.jpg" class="right" title="Southampton, the first 'Air Port'" width="350" }} In 1910 Edwin Moon took off in his Moonbeam II aircraft in **air fields** near Southampton.…
    … became a major post for military aircraft, these were mainly **'Flying Boats'**. These war planes became Britain’s first commercial flying boats, and the newspapers of the time reported that Southampton Water had become the world’s first
  52. Electronic Computer — 2017-12-22 10:07:10
    …=== Tommy Flowers 1943 === ~-[[CategoryInventions]]::[[CategoryTechnology]]:: Flowers created **Colossus**, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer in 1943. {{toc}} /* event_date="8 December 1943" First electronic computer 'Co…
    …lossus' is tested. */ /* event_date="5 February 1944" First electronic computer 'Colossus' did its first job. */ Thomas (Tommy) Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was a British engineer. During World…
    …vices. Bletchley called the devices **TUNNY** commonly referred to as **Enigma**. Flowers designed **Colossus**, the first true functioning **electronic** computer. {{Image url="Lorenz-sz40.jpg" class="left" title="Lorenz sz40" width="" }} …
  53. Carbonated water — 2017-11-21 13:06:44
    …1804" death_place="" }} {{toc}} Joseph Priestley (1733 – 1804) born in Birstall, near Batley in [[Yorkshire]] was the first to artificially **carbonate water** 1767. Often called **Soda water**. == Oxygen 1774 == In 1767, English chemist Jo…
    …seph Priestly (who went on to isolate oxygen) was the first to artificially carbonate water by hanging a filled vessel over a fermentation vat at a brewery in Leeds. Fermentation…
    … == After his initial success in Switzerland, Schweppe moved his company to [[England]] in **1792** where he set up his first mas production factory in London at 141 Drury Lane.…
  54. Powered Flight — 2017-11-11 21:00:20
    …w" birth_date="6 December1799" Place="Sheffield" death_date="13 December 1883" }} ||{{{toc}}}||{{adsense}}|| The '''first''' aircraft to fly under its own power was flown by its inventor, '''John Stringfellow''' (1799-1883), in Chard [[Somer…
    …gif" class="left" title="Airfoil" width="200" }}He experiments led him to develop an efficient cambered airfoil and the first person to identify the four vector forces that influence an aircraft: thrust, lift, drag, and gravity. He successfull…
    …awk glider. The demonstration did not go to plan and Percy was critically injured, robbing him, and the world, of the first manned powered flight. Percy died days later on the 2nd October 1899 before he could display his powered triplane. [[…
  55. Jet airliner — 2017-11-10 11:49:08
    …= {{image url="De-Havilland-Comet-DH106.jpg" class="right" title="De Havilland Comet DH106" width="400" }} The world's first purpose-built **jet airliner** was the **British de Havilland Comet** which first flew in 1949 and entered service in 1…
    …952. The **DH 106 Comet** was the first production commercial jetliner. It was developed and manufactured by de Havilland at its Hatfield Aerodrome, [[Hertfor…
  56. Loudspeaker — 2017-11-09 10:51:35
    … death_date="22 August 1940" death_place="Wiltshire" }} === Oliver Lodge 1898 === ~-[[CategoryIndustry]]:[[Music]]: The first loudspeaker to be driven by a **moving coil** – known today as dynamic loudspeakers – was invented by a British ph…
    …eft" title="Lodge Loudspeaker" width="" }} ::c:: == Early Speakers == [[Telephone|Alexander Graham Bell]] created the first practical //'transmitter'// for his telephone in 1877 that was improved by Siemens. It used a permanent bar magnet wit…
  57. WorldWideWeb — 2017-11-08 17:15:06
    …pages were formatted using the '''Hypertext Markup Language''' (HTML) that Berners-Lee had written. He also wrote the first web server. A web server is the software that stores web pages on a computer and makes them available to be accessed by…
    … others. Berners-Lee set up the first web server known as "info.cern.ch." at CERN. {{image url="Www.jpg" class="left" title="WWW" width="" }} In 1991, he ma…
  58. Light Bulb — 2017-11-08 12:25:58
    …undee, Scotland. - 1840, Warren de la Rue used a platinum coil in an evacuated tube. - 1841 Frederick de Moleyens had first patent for an incandescent light in a vacuum bulb. ::c:: === Photography === {{image url="Joseph_Wilson_Swan_2.jpg" cl…
  59. Pencil — 2017-10-26 16:13:41
    …hic pencils" width="400" }} === Borrowdale 1560 === [[CategoryIndustry]]::[[Literature]] The modern graphite pencil was first produced in Cumberland now [[Cumbria]], [[England]]. == Discovery == The pure graphite was discovered in 1500 near Ke…
    …ers, the quality of Cumberland graphite spread quickly to artists in Italy. This culminated in the establishment of the first pencil factory, which became the Cumberland Pencil Company in 1916. Cumberland pencils were used to create Raymond Br…
  60. Stereo — 2017-09-28 17:47:43
    …ephones to listen in live.// >> ::c:: == Realisation == Blumlein's binaural experiments began in early 1933, and the first **stereo** discs were cut later the same year. His system for cinematic use was completed by 1935. Blumlein made shor…
  61. CT Scan — 2017-08-30 00:04:03
    …e="Godfrey_Hounsfield.jpg" title="Godfrey Hounsfield" Birth_date="28 August 1919" Death_date="12 August 2004" }} The first CT Scan was performed at Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon, London, in **1975**. Godfrey Hounsfield was born in Su…
    … scanner, CAT scan for short. He worked for **EMI** and became interested in computers. In 1958, he helped design the first commercially available all-transistor computer made in Great Britain, the **EMIDEC 1100.** With the success of the [[B…
  62. Hovercraft — 2017-08-24 11:29:22
    …assification, the National Research Development Council (NRDC) funded the design and construction of SRN1 - the world's first man-carrying amphibious hovercraft. Saunders Roe, the flying boat firm at Cowes on the Isle of Wight, were given the co…
  63. Football — 2017-08-16 12:25:25
    …d for hundreds of years. But it was in England that the modern game of football really begin to take shape. In 1863 the first Football Association (F.A.) was founded in [[England]]. == The meeting == {{Image url="FA_Freemasons1863.jpg" class=…
    … that he formed in 1858. He wrote to 'Bell's Life Newspaper' proposing a governing body for the sport that led to the first meeting. He wanted a common set of rules so that clubs from all over the nation could compete with each other. Little …
  64. Toothbrush — 2017-08-06 10:37:43
    …egan exporting products abroad to the US in the 1880’s. By the time WWII came along Addis employed 650 people and the first injection moulding machines were purchased and the first nylon toothbrush was launched (under the Wisdom brand). It st…
    …per year in the UK. {{Image url="WilliamAddisBrushes.jpg" class="right" width="250" }} == Nylon era == By **1938** the first toothbrush with nylon fibres was produced, which proved sturdier and more efficient than bristles. But in the **United …
  65. Photography — 2017-08-04 11:03:18
    …ions]] === Henry Fox Talbot 1835 === {{TOC}} William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September 1877) took the first **reproducible photograph** in 1835. He was born in Melbury, [[Dorset]] and invented the salted paper and calotype pro…
    …: **developing, fixing**, and **printing**. {{Image src="Latticed_window_at_lacock_abbey_1835.jpg" class="left" title="First photograph - Lacock abbey 1935" width="200" }} == First Negative == Fox Talbot wanted to be able to reproduce the ima…
  66. Life Boat — 2017-08-03 09:58:34
    …aved on the reverse side of his tombstone: @@“This LIONEL LUKIN Was the first who built a Life-boat, and was the original Inventor of that principle of safety, by which many lives and much property…
    … title="Modern RNLI Life Boat" width="" }} ::c:: == Links == [[https://rnli.org/about-us/our-history/timeline/1785-the-first-lifeboats | RNLI ]] [[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F02E2D71E39E033A25751C2A9669D94639ED7CF | In M…
  67. Winston Churchill — 2017-07-25 09:46:00
    …as an inspirational statesman, writer and orator. == World War 2 == At the outbreak of World War II, Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty in command of the Royal Navy. The current Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, wanted to appease …
  68. DNA Forensics — 2017-07-15 13:33:34
    …tch?v=-zd1HzWl96Y ‘Code Of A Killer’ - Trailer]]. The drama, featuring **John Simms** as Alec Jeffreys, follows the first person convicted using DNA, Colin Pitchfork in September 1987, and Richard Buckland the first person to be exonerated u…
  69. Refrigeration — 2017-07-11 11:55:35
    …ce="Hamilton" death_date=" 5 Feb 1790" death_place="Edinburgh" }} === William Cullen 1748 === ~-[[CategoryScience]] The first **artificial refrigeration** was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow, [[Scotland]] in **1748**.…
    …. == [[CategoryDomestic]] Refrigerator == A inventor called Jacob Perkins came to England in 1818 and was granted the first patent for a '//vapor-compression refrigeration cycle//', on August 14, 1835 his device was the first that resembled a …
  70. PIN — 2017-07-11 00:37:33
    …every day. {{Image url="ChubbATM.jpg" class="left" title="Chubb ATM" width="" }} The Martins Bank Auto Cashier was the first cash dispenser to use a plastic card in conjunction with a PIN. The competitor, the BARCLAYCASH machine, was designed…
  71. Computer — 2017-07-10 17:37:14
    …age wanted to find a method by which computations could be calculated mechanically, removing human sources of error. He first discussed the principles of a calculating engine in a letter to Sir Humphry Davy in 1822. ===Difference Engine=== The…
    … also worked on another invention, the more complex **Analytical Engine**, a revolutionary device on which made him the first **computer pioneer**. {{Image url="Babbage_Difference_Engine.jpg" class="left" title="Babbage Difference Engine" width…
  72. Shire Horse — 2017-07-10 17:31:44
    … pulling heavy loads. === Packington 1760 === The origin of the Shire Horse dates back to a cold blooded heavy horse first mentioned in around 1066 probably brought into England after the Norman Conquest. From this developed the "English Grea…
    … from Packington near **Ashby de la Zouch** [[Leicestershire]] between **1755 & 1770**. He was black and appears in the first 'Shire Stud Book' and large numbers of horses are descended from him. {{Image url="ShireBeer.jpg" class="right" title=…
  73. Cambridge Cream — 2017-07-10 16:58:31
    …itle="Wonderful Cambridge Burnt Cream" }} ~-[[CategoryFood]] Chefs at the **Trinity College** in Cambridge, [[England]] first produced **'Cambridge Burnt Cream'** dessert no later than **1630**. ||{{{toc}}}||{{amazon type="book" items="190650…
    …**Burnt Cream**. == ''''Crème Brulee? Non non'''' == Cambridge Cream is often thought to be a French invention, the first written reference to it in France is in François Massialot's 'Le cuisinier royal et bourgeois' of 1691, but it is call…
  74. Vaccination — 2017-07-09 10:30:27
    …iggest killer in history. An answer was needed. == The Experiment == /* event_date="14 May 1796" Dr. Jenner gives the first vaccination */ {{Image url="smallpox_2.jpg" class="left" title="Infant with smallpox" width="250" }} On 14 May **1796*…
  75. Petroleum — 2017-07-07 00:38:24
    …ound that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful liquids from it, one of which he named paraffine. == First Oil Refinery == {{Image url="ShaleRefinery1850.jpg" class="left-right" title="Shale oil refinery circa 1850" width="" }…
    …e** in West Lothian and **E. Meldrum & Co** at Glasgow. The works at Bathgate were completed in **1851** and became the first truly **commercial oil-works and oil refinery in the world.** In **1852** Young took out a **US patent** for the produ…
  76. Air Traffic Control — 2017-07-06 13:23:45
    …Air Traffic Control :: === Croydon Airport 1921 === ~-[[CategoryTransport]] The first ATC, Air Traffic Control was introduced in Croydon [[London]] in 1921. {{Image url="CroydonTower.jpg" class="right" tit…
    …le="World's first ATC, Croydon airport tower" width="450" }} London Croydon Airport was Britain's first major international gateway airport. And it is the birthplace of Air Traffic Control and the world's first Air Traffic…
    …ontrol.jpg" class="left" title="Modern Air Traffic Control" width="400" }} Amy Johnson's record-breaking flights - the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia took off from Croydon in May 1930. == Links == More info: [[http://www.na…
  77. Greenwich Meridian — 2017-07-06 12:03:19
    … death_date="31 December 1719" death_place="Surrey" }} In 1675 **King Charles II** appointed **John Flamsteed** as the first Astronomer Royal of the new Royal Observatory in Greenwich. The [[British_Empire| Empire]] needed a method for navigat…
  78. Emergency Telephone Number — 2017-07-06 10:16:06
    …url="999Operator.jpg" class="right" title="Policeman with 999 Operator" width="450" }} {{TOC}} === London 1937 === The first emergency number system in the world, **999**, was launched in [[London]] on **30 June 1937**. /* event_date="30 June …
    …ights and hooters to alert exchange operators to give priority to the emergency call. == Instant success == During the first week there were 1,336 calls made to **999**. That number has grown to around 560,000 calls a week and more than 30 mil…
  79. LCD — 2017-07-05 11:03:57
    …scous, thereby providing faster response times and more transparent, which produced a pure-white colour display for the first time. == Re-invent the Display == {{Image url="LCDweather.jpg" class="left" title="LCD Calendar and Weather display" …
    …s at the RRE, led by Peter Raynes, further compounds were synthesised and evaluated. /* event_date="22 March 1973" The first stable LCD is announced to the world. */ These cyanobiphenyl compounds had a low viscosity, proved extremely stable (a…
  80. Radar — 2017-07-05 11:01:39
    …. Observers watching the maps would then tell the fighter groups what to do via direct communications. By **1937** the first three stations were ready, and his new reporting system put to the test. The results were clearly successful and an imm…
  81. Radio — 2017-07-05 10:54:29
    …ny. On 17 December 1902, a transmission from the Marconi station in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, became the world's first radio message to cross the Atlantic.…
  82. Telegraph — 2017-07-05 10:51:03
    …nt, no need for anyone to be trained in understanding codes, like the Morse system. === Morse === On learning of this first electrical telegraph success from the newspapers in New York, S F B Morse, a painter and electrical experimenter, sail…
  83. Cricket — 2017-07-05 08:37:39
    …o known MCC was created. The MCC has since then gone on to become one of the most prominent bodies in world cricket The first official International match was held between Canada and United States in the year 1844. == Cricket Today == Cricket …
  84. Charles Darwin — 2017-07-05 01:07:19
    …ound in South America, suggesting that species adapted over time and to their environment. Charles Darwin was not the first to propose a theory of evolution but his work was so compelling it could not be ignored. == Links == [[http://darwin-o…
  85. Float Glass — 2017-07-04 20:28:05
    … and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers in St.Helens [[Lancashire]], [[England]] developed the world's first commercially successful manufacture of high quality flat glass. {{Image url="FloatGlass.jpg" class="left" title="Float…
    … but it was unacceptable for high-quality applications. It was known as horticultural glass. == Foreign Licence == The first foreign licence went to the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in 1962, then the the rest of the world. Today, around 260 f…
  86. Modern Farming — 2017-07-03 12:19:17
    …appears to have taken no degree. ||{{{toc}}}|| {{amazon type="book" items="0850451051" }}|| Jethro Tull is one of the first to propose a scientific approach to agriculture. His scientific mind and great inventions would eventually help feed th…
  87. Tarmac — 2017-06-30 14:08:12
    …for Paving in 1806. In 1816 he was elected Surveyor-General of roads for the Turnpike Trust. ""McAdam"" constructed his first **'Macadamised'** stretch of road, Marsh Road at Ashton Gate, Bristol. {{Image url="JohnLoudonMcAdam.jpg" class="righ…
    …nes** within the mixture to form a smooth road surface. {{Image url="NottinghamRadcliffeRoad.jpg" class="center" title="First Tarmac road. Radcliffe Road, Nottingham" width="" }} Having perfected the operation, Hooley began transforming road sur…
    …faces. Nottingham's **Radcliffe Road** became the** first tarmac road in the world**. …
  88. Steel — 2017-06-28 14:56:51
    …="15 Mar 1898" death_place="London" }} == Henry Bessemer 1856 == ~-[[CategoryIndustry]] Sir Henry Bessemer invented the first industrial process for **mass-producing** steel inexpensively in 1856. Until the Bessemer-process steel making was slow…
  89. Pub — 2017-06-28 14:28:26
    …rits have been drinking a beer like liquid since at least the Bronze Age, but it was the arrival of the Romans that the first **Taverns** began to appear. Originally meant to provide food and refreshment for Roman soldiers they were built all ov…
  90. ATM — 2017-06-27 19:28:18
    …ate="15 May 2010" death_place="Inverness, Scotland" }} === John Shepherd-Barron 1967 === ~-[[CategoryTechnology]] The first **Automated Teller Machine** was installed at a branch of Barclays Bank in Enfield, north [[London]], on 27 June 1967.…
    … /* event_date="27 June 1967" The first ATM is opened in London. */ == Necessity == Shepherd-Barron was the managing director of **De La Rue Instruments**. …
    … pitch his idea for a cash machine. He said, 'Come and see me on Monday morning'. == Into Production == {{Image url="FirstATMWithdrawal.jpg" class="left" title="First ATMWithdrawal" width="300" }}Barclays asked for six cash dispensers, the fi…
  91. Paralympic Games — 2017-06-21 14:32:08
    …} ~-[[CategorySport]] === Sir Ludwig Guttmann 1948 === Professor Sir Ludwig "Poppa" Guttmann, (1899 - 1980) held the first Paralympic event in 1948. He was a German-born British neurologist. {{toc}} == From Stoke Mandeville == The first Par…
    …from the Netherlands took part in the competition, giving an international notion to the movement. == To Rome == The first Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability were held in Rome in 1960; officially called the// 9th Annual Intern…
    …ational Stoke Mandeville Games//, these are considered to be the first Paralympic Games. The first Winter Paralympics were held in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden in 1976. == Paralympic Games == Since 1988, the Summer Paralymp…
  92. YMCA — 2017-06-21 14:24:38
    …eggars and drunks. {{ Image url="Ymca.jpg" width="100" class="left" }} He and a group of fellow drapers organized the first YMCA. The idea was to substitute Bible study and prayer for life on the streets. By '''1851''' there were 24 YMCAs in G…
    …dow in Westminster Abbey, complete with a red triangle, is dedicated to YMCAs, to Sir George and to his work during the first World War. == New Sports == Because of the popularity of the YMCA there was a need to develop activities and games th…
  93. Microphone — 2017-06-21 00:40:34
    …/1900" death_place="London" }} === David Edward Hughes 1878 === ~-[[CategoryIndustry]]:[[Music]]: Hughes invented the first practical working carbon microphone in 1878. David Edward Hughes was probably born in Corwen [[Wales]] in 1831. His f…
  94. Electric Car — 2017-06-19 23:50:19
    …December 1915" death_place="Ironbridge" }} === Thomas Parker 1884 === ~-[[CategoryTransport]]:[[CategoryIndustry]] The first production Electric car was made by Thomas Parker in 1884. {{toc}} == Inventive genius == Parker was a very inventive …
    …1888 Elwell-Parker Ltd. agreed to consolidated with other companies to form the Electric Construction Corporation. == First mention == Even earlier the very first electric car was made by Scotsman** Robert Anderson ** around 1835 but at this …
    …ition for electric vehicles with Bersey producing taxis. With a top speed of 9-12 mph, Walter Bersey’s taxis were the first self-propelled vehicles for hire. The **Car** got off to a slow start in Britain thanks to the “Red Flag Act” which…
  95. Scouts — 2017-06-15 01:16:10
    …ngland]] a national hero, after defending the town of **Mafeking** for seven months from the besieging Boer troops, the first real British triumph in the **Boer War**. When he returned to England, he discovered that many boys and young men were…
  96. Hypodermic Syringe — 2017-06-13 16:45:32
    …ace="Fife, Scotland" death_date="26 February 1884" }} In 1853, Wood (1817 – 1884) born in [[Scotland]] invented the first hypodermic needle that used a true syringe and hollow needle. Alexander Wood was the first to develop a syringe with a…
  97. Sparkling Wine — 2017-06-11 14:08:47
    …ion. == Anglais 'Champagne' == {{ image url="Vineyard.jpg" class="right" tilte="Three Choirs English vineyard"}} The first mention of '''Sparkling Champagne''' was in English, not French. This was in '''1676 by Sir George Etherege''' who foun…
    …ng wine in Champagne around 1697 when he declared //“Come quickly, I am tasting the stars’’//. French made their first sparkling Champagne, which was in a document produced in 1718. …
  98. Gravity — 2017-06-10 22:00:35
    …basic laws that govern the way objects move in his publication '//Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'//. The First Law states that an object that is not being pushed or pulled by some force will stay still. The Second Law explains ho…
    …, '''Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.''' == Cat Flap == Newton is also credited with inventing the first known cat flap. While he was in his attic trying to conduct light experiments, his cat kept nudging the door open and l…
  99. Viagra — 2017-06-01 14:56:53
    … established the process to turn it into a pill and production was off. March 27th 1998, the FDA approved Viagra as the first drug to treat impotence. Between 1999 and 2001 sales annual sales of Viagra were more than **one billion dollars** (~£…
  100. Fire Extinguisher — 2017-06-01 10:14:02
    …y** was born 28 November 1765 in Denver, [[Norfolk]]. In **1813** Manby invented and patented the "**Extincteur**", the first portable pressurised fire extinguisher. == Design == {{Image url="AntiqueFireExtinguisher.jpg" class="left" title="Ant…
    … gallons (13.6 litres) of pearl ash (potassium carbonate) solution contained within compressed air. == Earlier == The first fire extinguisher, of a sort, was patented in 1723 by **Ambrose Godfrey **from [[England]]. His idea was more of a 'sle…
  101. Wellington Boot — 2017-05-29 13:46:08
    …tle="Rubber Wellies" }} In 1856 the Edinburgh-based North British Rubber Company had started to manufacture Britain’s first rubber or ‘gum’ boots. The boots were named ''Wellingtons'' and the name has stuck ever since. With the First World…
  102. Television — 2017-05-29 13:40:11
    …strations beginning on March 25, 1925. On the 26th of January 1926 in his [[London]] attic laboratory, John Logie Baird first publicly demonstrated television. == In Colour == He demonstrated the world's first colour transmission on July 3, 19…
    …utator to alternate their illumination. That same year he also demonstrated stereoscopic television. In 1932 he was the first to demonstrate ultra-short wave transmission. == Live Sport == In 1927 Baird transmitted a long-distance television …
    …ne line between London and Glasgow. He then set up the Baird Television Development Company Ltd, which in 1928 made the first transatlantic television transmission, from '''London''' to '''New York''', and the first television programme for the …
    …'''BBC'''. He televised the first live transmission of the Epsom Derby in 1931. {{Image url="Baird_tv.jpg" class="right" title="John Logie Baird with h…
  103. Cloning — 2017-05-25 17:15:19
    …hire]]" death_date="now" death_place="" }} [[Medical]]>[[CategoryScience]] === Dolly the Sheep 1996 === Dolly was the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell. Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her biological…
    …loned by Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell. {{toc}} {{image url="DollySheep.jpg" class="left" title="Baaaah" caption="Dolly first cloned mammal" width="" }} == Patience == The sheep was created by taking an embryo cell and inserting it into a sheep…
  104. Electric Generator — 2017-05-25 11:18:24
    …c:: == First Generator == {{Image url="FaradayDiskGenerator.jpg" class="left" title="Faraday Disk Generator" width="" }} In 1831 Mi…
  105. Linoleum — 2017-05-25 10:14:38
    …ry in Staines was exporting to Europe and the United States. Frederick Walton jnr went on to develop //Lincrusta// the first washable and durable wall covering.…
  106. Blood transfusion — 2017-05-23 21:23:32
    …dical]]=== James Blundell 1818 === Dr. James Blundell ( 1791 Holborn, [[London]], [[England]] – 1878) performed the first successful transfusion of human blood to treat postpartum haemorrhage. The donor was the patient's husband, Blundell ex…
    … In 1840, at St George's Hospital Medical School in London, Samuel Armstrong Lane, aided by Dr. Blundell, performed the first successful whole blood transfusion to treat haemophilia. == Beginnings of Transfusion == In the 1660s, the physician …
  107. Steam Engine — 2017-05-23 20:30:35
    …' (the "fire-engine", 1698) but it was '''Thomas Newcomen''' and his "atmospheric-engine" of 1712 that demonstrated the first operational and practical industrial engine. Together, Newcomen and Savery developed a beam engine that worked on the a…
    …tmospheric, or vacuum, principle. The first industrial applications of the vacuum engines were in the pumping of water from deep mineshafts. In mineshaft pumps the…
    …tion derived from the motion of the engine itself, by lengths of rope known as potter cord (Legend has it that this was first done in 1713 by a boy, '''Humphrey Potter''', charged with opening the valves; when he grew bored and wanted to play wi…
    …''', a member of the Lunar Society. In **1769** '''James Watt''', another member of the Lunar Society, **patented** the first significant improvements to the Newcomen type vacuum engine that made it much more fuel efficient. Watt's leap was to s…
  108. Australia — 2017-05-23 20:11:59
    …He drew detailed and accurate maps of the whole coastline of both north and south islands. {{Image url="captain_cook_first_voyage.gif" class="left" title="captain cook first voyage" width="600" }} ::c:: == Terra Australis == The continent …
    …ed after //Terra Australis//, Latin for South Land, had appeared on maps before its discovery. The North-West area was first sighted by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and recorded as New Holland not realising how big the continent was.…
  109. Hip Replacement — 2017-05-23 19:59:08
    …nley.jpg" class="right" Who="Sir John Charnley" birth_date="29 August 1911" death_date="5 August 1982" }} {{Toc}} The first successful Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was carried out by John Charnley in 1963. Before Sir John's work, there had …
  110. Police — 2017-05-22 22:57:53
    …Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) born in Bury, [[Lancashire]], [[England]] introduced the first professional police force in 1829. == Glasgow Police force == {{Image url="Bobby.jpg" class="left" width="220" title="…
    …brown coats with their personal numbers painted on their backs. Each carried a lantern and long stave. == The world's first modern police force 1829 == Robert Peel introduced the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 and set up an organised police …
  111. Split the Atom — 2017-05-20 11:31:05
    …Jun 1995" death_place="Belfast, Ireland" }}|| ~-[[CategoryScience]] === John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton 1932 === The first laboratory controlled splitting of the atom happened in **1932** when John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton focused a proton…
    … beam onto lithium and bust its nucleus. The era of **nuclear physics** was born. It was the first nuclear transmutation of one element (lithium) to another (helium) under full human control. {{Image url="SplitAtom.jp…
    …ngland]], Englishman Cockcroft and Irishman Walton used spare parts along with some wood and nails to build the world's first nuclear-particle accelerator in 1929. Rutherford had split the atom in Manchester more than ten years before. He wanted…
  112. Fingerprints — 2017-05-19 16:36:52
    … Haque and Bose ( working under their supervisor, Sir Edward Richard Henry), was accepted in England and Wales when the first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in Scotland Yard, the Metropolitan Police headquarters, London, in 1901.…
  113. Concorde — 2017-05-19 15:41:13
    …jet airliner. With a maximum speed at over **twice the speed of sound** at Mach 2.04 or 1,354 mph at cruise altitude. First flown in **1969**, Concorde entered service in **1976** and continued commercial flights for **27 years**. ::cl:: == M…
    …ach 2 == {{Image url="concorde1.jpg" class="left" title="Majestic Concorde" width="400" }}Brian Trubshaw test flew the first British Concorde at the Filton airfield in South [[Gloucestershire]]. Concorde could fly from New York to London in **2…
  114. Glastonbury Festival — 2017-05-19 15:29:10
    …Zeppelin]] and Eavis decided to host the **Pilton Pop Festival** in 1970 that became the **Glastonbury Festival**. == First Festival == Over the past {{datediff from="1970"}} years, starting with a crowd of 1500, Glastonbury now draws over **…
  115. Chocolate Bar — 2017-05-19 15:06:38
    …ngland]]" death_date="28/8/1861" death_place="" }} The process of turning cocao into a tablet or bar of chocolate was first perfected in **Bristol**, [[Gloucestershire]] by **Joseph Fry of Fry & sons** in **1841**. Although chocolate had bee…
  116. Meccano — 2017-05-14 01:23:25
    …tion in January 1901 as "**Improvements in Toy or Educational Devices for Children and Young People**", but not without first having to borrow five pounds from his employer, David Elliot, to cover the costs. His employer saw potential in what H…
    … instruction manuals in French and English, became available. In 1905 two new sets were introduced and in 1906, for the first time, a small profit was made. == Meccano is Born == In September 1907, Hornby registered his famous "**Meccano**" tr…
  117. Grand Theft Auto — 2017-05-11 15:45:29
    … by **Rockstar North** and published by Rockstar Games, the action-adventure video game sold 11.21 million units in its first 24 hours, and generated revenue of £511.8 million. It reached £624.45 million ($1b) in sales after just three days o…
  118. Vacuum Flask — 2017-05-02 15:07:40
    …"right" }} He researched the liquefaction of gases and the property of matter at extremely low temperatures. He was the first person to liquefy, and later solidify, hydrogen and show that metals had increased ability to conduct electricity at lo…
  119. MRI Scan — 2017-02-10 08:41:04
    …r progressed by the development of a rapid imaging technique called echo-planar imaging making 3D imaging feasible. == First MRI Image == The first MRI scan of a human body part was made by Sir Peter Mansfield, of a cross-section of the finger …
    …t a special meeting of the Medical Research Council in 1976. /* https://aberdeenmedlib.wordpress.com/2016/03/21/worlds-first-mri-scanner-now-on-display/ http://www.economist.com/node/2246166 */ American doctor and scientist Raymond Damadian bu…
  120. Lever Brothers — 2017-02-07 11:33:36
    …ing Watson a partner. == Soap == {{Image url="SunlightSoap.jpg" class="left" title="Sunlight Soap" width="300" }} They first called their product 'Honey Soap' then later named it "**Sunlight Soap**". The product sold quickly and production soo…
  121. Cheesecake — 2017-02-03 16:40:16
    …ay have resembled cheesecake, but the English medieval cookbook, **[[Lasagne | The Forme of Cury]]** from 1390, has the first recipe that most resembles the modern cheesecake. == Original Recipe == {{Image url="Sambocade.JPG" class="left" ti…
  122. Postage Stamp — 2017-02-01 12:17:38
    …79" }} === Sir Rowland Hill 1840 === ~-[[CategoryInventions]]>[[CategoryIndustry]] The **Penny Black** was the world's first adhesive postage stamp used in a public postal system. It was the first pre-paid mail service, issued in Great Britain …
  123. Modern Olympics — 2017-01-25 14:57:15
    …ass. Dr Brookes aimed to promote physical and intellectual improvement among the ordinary citizens of the locality. The first games he held were a mixture of old Greek style athletics and local sports such as football and cricket. By 1851 compet…
    …ookes sharing the dream of an international Olympian movement with de Coubertain. ==Modern Olympics== In **1894** the first Congress of the **Modern Olympics** was held in France and Brookes was invited to attend. Unfortunately he was unable t…
    …o go due to ill health. In 1896 however the Shropshire doctor's dream was realised. The first revived Olympics were held in **Athens** during the month of April. Tragically, Brookes had died just 4 months earlier.…
  124. Harrier Jump Jet — 2017-01-18 16:14:57
    …]] {{image url="HarrierJet.jpg" class="right" title="Harrier Jump Jet" width="400" }} The **Harrier Jump Jet** is the first and most successful jet fighter aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) due to the perfectio…
  125. Dinosaur — 2016-10-24 00:25:22
    …ty scientist today. He was labelled "impudent" by teachers at Lancaster Royal Grammar School. == Megalosaurus == The first scientifically named dinosaur is **Megalosaurus** it was a large Theropod dinosaur and was the** first dinosaur skeleto…
  126. Plywood — 2016-10-19 10:55:12
    …eers. His patent describes the concept of laminating several layers of veneer with glue to form a thicker piece – the first description of what we now call plywood. Over fifty years later machining equipment for the process was improved by Im…
    … Academy in Portsmouth. He developed a liking towards the constructional work of the navy. In 1780 he was sent by the First Lord of the Admiralty to visit various ports and dockyards in Northern Europe and in Russia he built and equipped a flo…
    …tilla of ships. == Patents == In 1791 he returned to England and took out his first patent for wood-working machines for sawing, planing and block-making. In 1793 Bentham took out what has been called /…
  127. Lasagne — 2016-08-28 14:46:37
    …itle="King Richard II" width="" }} The English medieval cookbook, **The Forme of Cury**, in the British Museum has the first recipe for **Lasagne.** This cookbook, by the cooks of King Richard II’s household, is the first recorded recipe for…
  128. Internal Combustion Engine — 2016-08-23 10:46:47
    …structed the first petrol internal combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carbur…
    …anufacturer of steam engines and agricultural equipment, as the Hornsby Akroyd Patent Oil Engine under licence and were first sold commercially on 8 July **1892**. It was the **first internal combustion engine** to use a pressurised fuel injecti…
    …ter Hornsby won the oil engine prize at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893), many lighthouses, and for powering Marconi's first transatlantic radio broadcast. == Diesel engine == {{Image url="First_Diesel_motor.jpg" class="left" title="First Rudo…
  129. Fish and chips — 2016-08-04 17:02:59
    …on]] and South East England in the 19th century. Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in //Oliver Twist//, first published in 1838, while in the north of [[England]] a trade in deep-fried chipped potatoes developed. {{Image url="Fi…
    …rstnchip_shop.jpg" class="left" title="First chip shop" width="300" }} Tommyfield market in Oldham is considered the home of Britain’s first fish and chip shop. …
  130. Potato Crisp — 2016-08-02 23:43:06
    …kbook Apicius Redivivus **'The Cook’s Oracle'** was a best selling book in Britain //and// the USA. It includes the first recipe for potato crisps: “**Potatoes fried in Slices or Shavings” and cooked to a crisp.** == Jack of All == {{I…
  131. Chicken Tikka Masala — 2016-08-02 10:42:06
    …hmed Aslam 1970 ==== {{Image url="AliAhmedAslam.jpg" class="right" title="Ali Ahmed Aslam" width="" }} Ali Ahmed Aslam first concocted the curry dish Tikka Masala in 1970 in Scotland. A British gentleman sometime around 1970 in the **Shish Mah…
    … spicy Indian dish was toned down and a sauce added to suit British palates used to having gravy with their meal. The first documented recipe for Currey (Curry) was published in ‘//Art of Cookery//’ by **Hannah Glasse**, 1747 in England.…
  132. Guillotine — 2016-07-28 13:29:34
    …ySociety]] === Halifax 1280 === {{Image url="HalifaxGibbet.jpg" class="right" title="Halifax Gibbet" width="400" }} The first use of a guillotine for execution by decapitation was in [[Yorkshire]] [[England]] with the **'Halifax Gibbet'** around…
    …sight of the Gibbet would act as a deterrent to those who might have considered a life of crime. == Deterrent == The first recorded use of the Halifax Gibbet is in 1286 for the execution of **John of Dalton**, but it is not known what his cha…
    …he Halifax Gibbet was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a single day, on 30 April 1650. The first recorded use of what was known as the guillotine in France was in 1789. …
  133. Beatrix Potter — 2016-07-23 14:22:52
    …he Uxbridge Road, Shepherd's Bush, for the exorbitant sum of 4/6'//. He was to prove a sound investment. Peter lent his first name to one of the world's best-loved fictional characters and earned Beatrix Potter enduring international acclaim. …
  134. National Trust — 2016-06-23 16:14:23
    …National Trust :: [[CategorySociety]]== National Trust == In 1895 the world's first National Trust was set up in [[England]]. {{Image url="NationalTrust.jpg" class="left-right" title="National Trust" wid…
  135. Sport — 2016-06-23 13:22:23
    …irst recorded cricket match took place at Coxheath in Kent, England in 1646. This match also produced the first record of betting on cricket. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the world-famous …
    …o known MCC was created. The MCC has since then gone on to become one of the most prominent bodies in world cricket The first official International match was held between Canada and United States in the year 1844. [[Cricket | Main article.]] =…
    …dth="100"}} At the meeting for the Football Association several clubs were unhappy over the removal of two draft rules, firstly the rule which allowed for the running with the ball in hand ( ''Handball Ref!'' ) and secondly, obstructing such a r…
    …lowed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. == Golf 1502 == Golf was first played officially throughout [[Scotland]] from 1502, when the ban was lifted. {{Image url="Golf_Ball.jpg" class="right"…
  136. Industrial Revolution — 2016-06-23 12:25:37
    …roughout the world in the late Nineteenth century. The first of Mushet's steel rails was delivered to Derby Midland Station, where it was laid down early in 1857 at a heavily traff…
    …evolutionising public transport and modern day engineering. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of **SS Great Britai…
    …n** in 1843 in Bristol [[Gloucestershire]], the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time also the largest ship ever built. {{Image url="SSGreatBri…
  137. Billiards — 2016-06-23 11:09:55
    …ze cloth covered table with pockets, has various forms from the 15th century in Europe. But what is known is that the first book of billiard rules was in English by **Charles Cotton** in **1647**. === Charles Cotton 1647 === The game was a…
    …in 1609 in Act II, Scene 5, Cleopatra says: "Let's to billiards. Come, Charmian." == Beginings of Modern Rules == The first governing body of the game, the **English Billiards Association**, was formed in the UK in 1885. Later to become the *…
  138. Banoffi Pie — 2016-05-24 14:24:02
    …ming it, **"The Birthplace of one of the World's Favourite Puddings."** This is the original Banoffi Pie recipe as it first appeared in the book ** ‘The Deeper Secrets of the Hungry Monk’ **in 1974. {{Image url="HungryMonkplaque.png" class…
  139. Christmas Traditions — 2016-05-24 14:20:06
    …d.jpg" width="200" title="Christmas Card" }}||The custom of sending Christmas cards started in Britain in 1840 when the first 'Penny Post' public postal deliveries began. Over a billion Christmas cards are now sent every year in the United Kingd…
  140. Loch Ness Monster — 2016-05-24 13:01:48
    …uple who claimed to have seen: ^^an enormous animal rolling and plunging on the surface.^^ /* event_date="May 2, 1933" First sighting of Nessie */ Loch Ness, located in the Highlands of [[Scotland]], has the largest volume of fresh water in Gr…
  141. Automatic Kettle — 2016-05-17 16:47:22
    …00" }} {{{toc}}} <<{{adsense}}<< **William (Bill) Russell **(1920-2006) and **Peter Hobbs** (1916 - 2008) produced the first automatic electric kettle in 1955. Hobbs had gone into business with Russell in 1952, designing and manufacturing a c…
    …offee percolator that - for the first time - kept coffee hot, and also producing an automatic tea-maker to rival the Goblin Teasmade. === The K1 === {{imag…
    …e url="K1_1955.jpg" class="right" title="K1" width="" }} Their first automatic electric kettle, the vapour-controlled K1, appeared in 1955 and was superseded by the more elegant K2, a mode…
  142. Tank — 2016-05-16 11:27:53
    …ank" }} === Military Tank 1916 === {{Datetext event_date="15 September 1916" text="The British Mark I was the world's first tank to enter combat. " }} {{Image url="MarkIVTank.jpg" class="right" title="Mark IVTank" width="400" }} {{Toc}} The …
    …British Mark I was the world's first tank to enter combat seeing action on the morning of 15 September **1916** during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. Th…
    …e first full scale use of around **460 tanks** was the Mark IV used en masse at the **Battle of Cambrai** in 20 November 1917. …
  143. Pneumatic Tyre — 2016-05-12 16:10:13
    …her with liquid rubber. == Patent == He patented this idea on 7 December **1888**, using the word 'pneumatic' for the first time [See below] , in the same year. A local firm, W. Edlin and Co, then agreed to manufacture frames to fit the new ty…
    …{{Image url="Tyre.jpg" class="left" title=" Rubber Tyre" width="200" }} ::c:: == Or even earlier == This was not the first time someone had tried making inflatable tyres. Another Scot, Robert William Thomson had patented the idea in 1846 (Dun…
  144. Vacuum Tube — 2016-05-11 11:46:26
    …Fleming 1904 === Sir John Ambrose Fleming ( 1849 – 1945) born in Lancaster, [[Lancashire]], [[England]] invented the first **thermionic valve** or vacuum tube, or just **valve** as it was known. He received a patent on November 16, 1904. == …
  145. Pay Toilet — 2016-05-10 16:55:15
    …tenham" death_date="18/5/1917" death_place="London" }} {{toc}} Maskelyne was an English stage magician. He invented the first modern pay toilet in the late 19th century. His door lock for London toilets required the insertion of a penny coin to …
    …ToiletLock.jpg" class="right" title="Maskelyne Toilet Lock" width="100" }} == Other Interests == The Maskelyne was the first typewriter to be manufactured in Britain. It was produced by the Maskelyne British Typewriter and Manufacturing Company…
  146. Mary Poppins — 2016-05-05 17:16:51
    …ath_place="London, [[England]]" }} Mary Poppins is the lead character in books written by **P. L. Travers**, which was first published in 1934. Travers moved from a rented flat in London to a thatched cottage in [[Sussex]]. It was here, in th…
    …nter of **1933**, that she began to write **Mary Poppins**. Published in London in **1934**, Mary Poppins was Travers' first literary success. Many sequels followed. Travers' great aunt, Helen Morehead, who lived in Woollahra, Sydney, and when…
  147. English Bible — 2016-03-26 11:59:47
    …= {{Image url="WilliamTyndale.jpg" class="right" title="William Tyndale" width="" }} Tyndale’s New Testament was the first to be printed in English. Those discovered owning them were punished. At first only the books were destroyed, but soon …
    …heretics would be burned. Although the Old Testament had first been written in Hebrew and the New Testament in a dialect of Greek the official language of the medieval Church was La…
  148. Golf — 2016-03-10 15:18:45
    …:: [[CategorySport]]== Golf == {{Image url="Golf-Course.jpg" class="right" title="Golf Course " width="400" }} Golf was first played officially throughout [[Scotland]] from 1502, when the ban was lifted. === Edinburgh Scotland 1502 === Most of …
    …the early references to golf in Scottish official records are either to ban it or to condemn those playing it. The first documented mention is in Edinburgh on 6th March 1457, when King James II banned ‘ye golf’, in an attempt to encoura…
  149. Automatic watch — 2016-03-06 00:37:12
    …-1929.jpg" class="right" title="Harwood watch face" width="200" }} == Self Winding Watch Company == The watches were first shown at the Basel Fair in 1926. He set up the Harwood Self Winding Watch Company in 1928 to market the watches in the …

The emblem of Rule Britannia
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