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  1. Bearings — 2021-04-07 21:27:25
    …Bearings :: {{draft}} === Philip Vaughan 1794 === Philip Vaughan, an iron master from Carmarthen [[Wales]], patented the first ball bearing mechanism. He described how iron balls running in a groove between the wheel and axle would r…
    …educe friction in his patent of 1794. {{Image url="PatentBearings.jpg" class="right" title="Philip Vaughan Ball Bearing Patent" width="500" }} Vaughan was a carriage maker and …
  2. Rubber — 2021-04-05 22:37:44
    … Macintosh's naphtha process. The two men eventually became partners in the manufacture of waterproofed items. == Patent == {{Image url="ThomasHancockPlaque.jpg" class="left" title="Thomas Hancock Plaque for the vulcanisation of rubber" wid…
    …th="400" }} **Thomas Hancock** patented in **1843**, a process whereby heating rubber and **sulphur** together at 155°C for two hours gave a horn-like solid…
    … containing 30% sulphur. Hancock took out another patent on May 21st, 1845 to try to protect his methods. Three weeks later, on June 15, 1845, Goodyear took out a patent in the…
    … United States. Later in 1851 Charles Goodyear was awarded another patent for Improvement in the Manufacture of Indian Rubber. This was a reworking of the Hancock method. He later devised metho…
  3. Powered Flight — 2021-04-05 22:36:49
    …red monoplane, with a wing span of **150 feet**, which he named the **"Henson Aerial Steam Carriage"**. He received a **patent** on it in 1843 along with **John Stringfellow**. Stringfellow designed and built a model monoplane. It had a 10 feet …
  4. Marmite — 2021-04-03 10:38:16
    …d, employed not far from where the Marmite company was founded in Burton-on-Trent. Alfred Oxford had taken out several patents in the closing years of the 19th century, most of which were for animal feeds. All were based on recycling the waste y…
    …ton-on-Trent and because money wasn't plentiful, he devoted much of his time to his family and failed to renew the Zalo patent. https://worldwide.espacenet.com OXFORD ALFRED JAMES GB190105936 (A) ― 1902-02-20 HERON JOHN GB190106937 (A) …
    …cientist, had found the method to extract a palatable paste from the spent yeast, but it has emerged it was created and patented in the late 1800s by a brewer's clerk called **Alfred Oxford** employed in Burton-on-Trent. The patent had lapsed so…
  5. Patent Leather — 2021-01-31 22:10:03
    …d, requires only to be wiped with a sponge to restore it to its original lustre.^^ == Then came colour == {{Image url="PatentLeatherBag.jpg" class="left" title="Patent Leather Bag" width="" }} In November 1799, inventor Edmund Prior, of Holborn,…
    … London, England, patented a method of painting and colouring leather. {{Image url="PatentLeatherRedShoes.jpg" class="right" title="Patent Leather Red Shoes" width="300" }}…
  6. Can — 2021-01-27 20:03:33
    …1810 === {{Image url="DurandTinCan.jpg" class="left" title="Durand Tin Can" width="" }} In 1810 Durand from [[England]] patented the use of tin-coated iron "**Food Can**" or canning. The patent (No 3372) was granted on August 25, 1810 by King Ge…
    …le="Soup can" width="150" }} == Improved Production == In 1813 **John Hall** and **Bryan Dorkin** acquired the Durand patent and opened the first commercial canning factory in England. The firm of Donkin, Hall and Gamble was later merged into C…
    …rosse & Blackwells. The patent was re-sold in America some six years later in 1818. == Mass Production == In 1846, **Henry Evans** invents a machine …
  7. Petroleum — 2020-12-03 01:07:44
    …merican petroleum, that they called kerosene, was being imported to Britain even though Young had successfully sued for patent infringement in the USA. It was more crudely refined and that meant it was cheaper than Young's fuel. It also had a rep…
  8. Toilet — 2020-11-30 16:28:35
    …s a watchmaker and mechanician from Edinburgh (1732-1814). He invented the 'S'-shaped trap in 1775 and was the first to patent the flushing water closet. It used standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air fro…
    …m the sewer, and used a sliding valve. === Samuel Prosser 1777 === In 1777, Samuel Prosser invented and patented the 'plunger closet'. The plunger released the waste and also sealed the soil pipe. === Joseph Bramah 1778 === >>{{i…
  9. Cinematography — 2020-11-30 00:47:51
    …o photograph a racehorse. In 1886 Louis created a 16-lens camera. On the 2nd November 1886, Le Prince applied for a US patent and on 16th November 1888, he received a British patent for his invention. == Mysterious death == After being granted…
    … the patents Louis Le Prince mysteriously vanished. This meant Le Prince was never able to perform a planned public demonstration i…
  10. Lawn Mower — 2020-11-23 01:15:19
    …nership with a local engineer, **John Ferrabee**, and together they made mowers in a factory at Stroud. == Descriptive Patent == /* event_date="25 October 1830" The Lawn Mower is patented */ {{image url="Buddingmower.jpg" title="Budding Mower" w…
    …designed primarily to cut the lawn on sports grounds and expansive gardens as a superior alternative to the scythe. His patent of **25 October 1830** described //"a new combination and application of machinery for the purpose of cropping or shear…
  11. Winston Churchill — 2020-10-13 18:36:20
    …crowave ovens and [[Split_the_Atom| Nuclear Fission]] to develop the **Atomic Bomb** technology to the annoyance of the patent holders. >>{{amazon type="book" items="1594161631" }}>> His British Bulldog virtues pulled the country behind him. Of…
  12. Underwater Tunnel — 2020-10-11 23:44:16
    …ttempts that had failed led engineers to consider it impractical. But this did not deter Brunel. In January 1818 Brunel patented a revolutionary **tunnelling shield** a major leap in tunnelling technology. This protected workers and improved sa…
  13. Vacuum cleaner — 2020-10-11 23:24:10
    …fing Billy == {{Image url="Booth1stvacuum.jpg" title="Booth's Puffing Billy" class="right" width="300" }} In 1901 Booth patented his vacuum cleaner and founded '''The Vacuum Cleaner Company Ltd'''. to manufacture and market it. The Head Office wa…
    …ing them back to the mint. They had inadvertently sucked a fair amount of '''gold''' dust into their dustbag. == World Patent == In 1903 Booth was granted world patent rights for the vacuum cleaner. This started a long round of legal battles as …
  14. Telegraph — 2020-10-11 23:15:42
    …r:: In May 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph, the **Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph**, was co-developed and patented by William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone. It was beautifully simple using electromagnetism to turn five nee…
    …al experimenter, sailed to Liverpool in May 1838 to see how the Cooke Wheatstone Telegraph worked. Morse was wanting to patent his own simple telegraphic apparatus in Europe. He could see that this system was more advanced than his own system but…
  15. Plastic — 2020-08-21 09:26:58
    …for his development of various industrial processes and materials and for having invented the first plastic that Parkes patented in **1856** ||{{{toc}}}||{{amazon type="book" items="0887307329" }}|| == Celluloid called Parkesine == His interest …
    …poration of the solvent of photographic collodion was a “hard, horny elastic and waterproof substance.” In 1856, he patented the process of waterproofing woven fabrics by the use of such materials. {{Image url="Alexander_Parkes_Blue_Plaque.jp…
  16. Eraser — 2020-08-18 10:06:20
    …– November 4, 1893), born to English parents, to have the idea of putting the eraser on the other end of a pencil. He patented his invention on March 30, 1858. {{Tag ids="pencil eraser graphite writing letter "}}…
  17. WorldWideWeb — 2020-08-17 17:38:15
    …happening. The web yet another British invention which has help to shrink the globe in communications. Yet Tim did not patent his idea he made it available to all. In 2007 the Queen awarded Berners-Lee with one of Britain's highest honours - th…
  18. Digital Photography — 2020-08-17 17:33:21
    …th (not pictured) and Nobukazu Teranishi. Michael Francis Tompsett filed the first CCD imaging [[http://www.google.com/patents/US4085456 | patent in 1971]] {{Tag ids="Digital photography imaging CCD colour camera"}} …
  19. Pop Rivet — 2020-08-17 14:41:51
    … class="right" title="Wylie Pop Rivet" width="350" }} British engineer Hamilton Neil Wylie invented the "Pop rivet" and patented his brainchild in 1916. Also called a blind rivet it allowed one person to fit a rivet with access only needed from o…
    …rcraft manufacture. == Naval and Aircraft == Wylie was an engineer and Royal Navy reservist, he was granted a British patent for "an improved means of closing tubular rivets." in 1917. He then joined the British aircraft company Armstrong-Whit…
  20. Hydraulics — 2020-08-17 13:24:35
    …th_place="London" }} === Joseph Bramah 1795 === ~-[[CategoryIndustry]]::[[1700s]] {{toc}} Joseph Bramah was granted a patent for his **hydraulic press** in 1795. Joseph Bramah was born in Stainborough, Barnsley [[Yorkshire]], [[England]] in 17…
  21. Life Boat — 2020-08-17 09:00:19
    …= ~-[[CategoryTransport]]::[[CategorySociety]]::[[1700s]] Lionel Lukin designed the world’s first unsinkable boat and patented it on 2 November 1785. {{TOC}} Lukin was a coach-builder in Long Acre, London and his experiments on a Norwegian yaw…
    … Dr John Sharpe, Archdeacon of Northumberland, asked Lukin to convert a 'coble' to include in it, the principles of his patent. The new boat was duly dispatched to Sharpe, in Bamburgh, and served for a number of years as the **first known purpose…
    …of safety, by which many lives and much property have been preserved from Shipwreck; and he obtained for it the King's patent in the year 1785.”@@ Such was the success of lifeboats that On 28 February 1823 the RNLI was formed. {{Image url="Li…
  22. Reinforced Concrete — 2020-08-17 08:53:02
    …Portland cement in the floors of a two-story cottage he was building for his servants. The method proved successful. He patented his invention in 1854. for creating **reinforced concrete**. His process was in demand and went on to build the conc…
  23. Linoleum — 2020-08-17 08:43:03
    … the oxidation process by heating it with lead acetate and zinc sulphate. When he mastered his //recipe// he took out a patent eventually calling it **Linoleum**, derived from the Latin words “linum” (“flax”) and “oleum” (“oil”).…
  24. Cyclonic Vacuum Cleaner — 2020-08-15 09:18:21
    …ut it was only suitable in industrial settings. James wondered if he could apply this to a domestic vacuum cleaner. == Patents and Japan == James Dyson spent two years looking for someone to license his Dual Cyclone™ product. Dyson had to tu…
    …Dyson company {{Image url="Dyson_G-Force.jpg" class="left" title="Dyson G-Force" width="" }} In 1992 Dyson takes out Patent # 5,090,976 (US) for Dual cyclonic vacuum cleaner. By 1995 The Dyson DC01 became the best-selling vacuum cleaner in the…
  25. Stereo — 2020-08-15 08:57:04
    …tory and disorienting results. Blumlein wanted to find a way to make the sound follow the actor across the screen. == Patent == {{Image url="BlumleinPair.jpg" class="left" title="Blumlein Pair is still used." width="350" }} His earliest notes o…
    …n the subject are dated 25 September 1931, and his patent had the title// "Improvements in and relating to Sound-transmission, Sound-recording and Sound-reproducing Systems".// …
    …The application was dated 14 December 1931, and was accepted on 14 June 1933 as UK patent number 394,325. He called his technique ''Binaural Sound.'' ::c:: His concepts included: - The use of a coincident pa…
  26. Loudspeaker — 2020-08-15 08:55:29
    …t Oliver Lodge in 1898. {{Image url="Speaker.jpg" class="left" title="Speaker" width="300" }} ::c:: == Design == His patent 9712 on Apr 27, 1898 described an improved loudspeaker using a coil connected to a diaphragm, suspended in a strong mag…
  27. Jet Engine — 2020-08-15 08:35:25
    …ine that did not require a propeller." in 1933 and patented his jet engine plans in 1936.)// ---- == Patent problem == Whittle's jet engine patent lapsed in 1935, he could not afford the renewal fee of '''£5'''. Soon after th…
  28. LCD — 2020-08-15 08:31:22
    …icted) and, formulated as eutectic mixtures, they could remain liquid crystalline from -10ºC to +60ºC. These were **patented** and subsequently licensed by the MOD, through the aegis of Cyril Hilsum, since the university baulked at the costs …
  29. Radio — 2020-08-09 19:56:54
    …ni** began pursuing the idea of building a wireless telegraphy system based on Hertzian waves (radio). Marconi gained a patent on the system in 1896. Marconi was born in Bologna on 25 April 1874, his **Irish** mother, Annie Jameson was the daugh…
  30. Milk of Magnesia — 2020-08-09 19:55:03
    …ed difficult. {{Image url="FluidMagnesia.jpg" class="left" title="Fluid Magnesia" width="" }} == Production == Murray patented a production process for ‘fluid magnesia’ as a mild laxative and antacid, setting up a factory in Belfast to prod…
    …ss="left" title="Milk of Magnesia" width="" }} == Charles Henry Phillips == Phillips an English pharmacist received a patent in 1873 for hydrate of magnesia mixed with water which he called **Milk of Magnesia**. In 2013 the European Union insi…
  31. Disc Brakes — 2020-08-09 19:54:18
    … === Frederick Lanchester 1902 === ~-[[CategoryTransport]]:[[CategoryIndustry]]::[[1900s]] Frederick William Lanchester patented the vehicle disc brake in 1902. == Car Enthusiast == In 1889.Lanchester joined the "Forward Gas Engine Co" in Birmi…
    …ter becomes the Lanchester Motor Company. {{Image url="DiscBrake.jpg" class="left" title="Disc Brake" width="" }} == Patents Galore == As production increased Fred developed many improvements for their automobiles including his disk brake sys…
  32. Hovercraft — 2020-08-06 08:05:57
    … in use in America and 250 in the Soviet Union, many used in recent conflicts. In these early days Cockerell's idea was patented and immediately put on the secret list. Nothing happened and Cockerell became increasingly agitated. Eventually, in …
  33. Rubber Band — 2020-06-28 12:40:44
    …= ~-[[CategoryDomestic]]:[[CategoryIndustry]] Stephen Perry of Messers Perry and Co, Rubber Manufacturers of [[London]] patented the rubber band in England on March 17, 1845. Also known as an elastic band the idea was touted by Thomas Hancock aft…
    …er he patented vulcanized [[Rubber]]. {{Image url="RubberBands.jpg" class="left" title="Rubber Bands" width="400" }} == Thousands …
  34. Paternoster — 2018-09-18 13:06:34
    …Latin for ''Our Father', which begins the Lord's Prayer and maybe good advice before you attempt to board the lift. == Patents == {{Image url="OrielChambers.jpg" class="right grow" title="Oriel Chambers" width="400" }} In 1877, British engineer …
    …Peter Hart obtained a patent on a paternoster and in 1884, in Dartford, England, the engineering firm of J & E Hall installed its first "Cyclic Elev…
    …ator", using Hart's patent, in a London office block. The Paternoster became very popular in Europe where many still operate. Britain has a remai…
  35. Ice Cream Cone — 2018-09-12 18:00:23
    …and was dubbed the **"Queen of Ices"**. {{Image url="Marshall-freezer.jpg" class="grow growhide left" title="Marshall's patent freezer" width="300" }} == Cornets with Cream == >>{{amazon type="book" items="B0010PANVU" }}>> Marshall's cookery bo…
    …vendors used at the time. She also gave public lectures on cooking, ran an agency for domestic staff and was granted a patent for an improved ice cream machine that could freeze a pint of ice cream in five minutes. She also suggested using liqui…
  36. Vibrator — 2018-08-23 20:50:37
    …mer Granville 1880 === {{Image url="FemaleHysteria.jpg" class="right" title="Female Hysteria" width="300" }} Granville patented an **Electro-mechanical Vibrator** 1880. Originally called a percusser or more colloquially "**Granville's hammer**"…
  37. Light Bulb — 2017-11-08 12:25:58
    …ison patent was 4 November 1879 granted Jan 1880. on October 8, 1883 the US Patent Office ruled that Edison’s US Patent was invalid due to prior art by William Sawyer and others. By 1889, 10 years after the patent, there were only 710 cust…
    …en more years later, after electricity costs had come down, there were 3 million customers and all the basic light bulb patents had expired. (...) Seven years, and more than $100,000 in litigation expenses after Edison’s patent was invalidated …
    …by the US Patent Office, on October 6, 1889, a judge ruled that the electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high r…
    …son and his team did not find a commercially workable filament (bamboo) until more than 6 months after Edison filed the patent application Link to US espionage: http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/155942 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~…
  38. Photography — 2017-08-04 11:03:18
    … Fox Talbot found he could then repeat the process of printing from the negative. He called this the **'calotype'** and patented the process in 1841. This was the basis for all photography for {{Datediff from="1/1/1841" to="16/3/1971" }} years un…
  39. Refrigeration — 2017-07-11 11:55:35
    …[[CategoryDomestic]] Refrigerator == A inventor called Jacob Perkins came to England in 1818 and was granted the first patent for a '//vapor-compression refrigeration cycle//', on August 14, 1835 his device was the first that resembled a //fridg…
    …// and was titled: "Apparatus and means for producing ice, and in cooling fluids." It took around 150 years, 1000's of patents and ice that was contaminated from industrial pollution, before people began using refrigerators.…
  40. PIN — 2017-07-11 00:37:33
    …ccept a machine-readable encrypted card, identifying the individual, and providing them with their money on demand. UK Patent No. 1,197,183 dated of May 2 1966, covers this invention. It is also covered by US Patent No.3,905,461. == Automated T…
  41. Horlicks — 2017-07-08 21:35:20
    …They called their product 'Diastoid' and their advertising slogan read: 'Horlick's Infant and Invalids Food' under a US patent in 1883. == Back home == {{Image url="HorlicksAdvert.jpg" class="right" title="Horlicks Advert" width="" }} In 1890 Ja…
  42. Radar — 2017-07-05 11:01:39
    …Bowen (born Swansea, [[Wales]]) to start further research at Orfordness. On** April 2, 1935** Watson-Watt was granted a patent for radar. By June they were detecting aircraft at 17 miles, which was enough to stop all work on competing sound-based…
  43. Tarmac — 2017-06-30 14:08:12
    …ath_place="Oxford England" Invented="Tarmac" }} {{Toc}} === Edgar Purnell Hooley 1902 === /* event_date="1902" Hooley patents Tarmac */ Hooley patented **Tarmac** in Britain, in 1902 (GB 7796). He called his company// Tar Macadam (Purnell Ho…
    …oley's Patent) Syndicate Limited// registered in 1903, Tarmacadam in honour of J L ""McAdam"". The **Tarmac** company was relaunche…
    … noticed this unintentional resurfacing had solidified the road - there was no rutting and no dust. By 1902 Hooley had patented the process of heating **tar**, adding **slag** to the mix and then breaking **stones** within the mixture to form a …
  44. Microphone — 2017-06-21 00:40:34
    …cratching through a sound box and there were many other witnesses to his microphone's efficiency. Hughes decided not to patent his innovation; instead giving it as a gift to the world, a view that was contrary to Edison's. It is worth noting tha…
    …t in the U.S. an idea could be patented and developed later. {{Image url="Microphone-Blue-Plaque.jpg" class="left" title="Microphone Blue Plaque in Great Po…
  45. Portland Cement — 2017-06-15 01:37:39
    …855" death_place="Wakefield" }} [[CategoryInventions]]>[[CategoryIndustry]] === Joseph Aspdin 1824 === Joseph Aspdin patented **Portland cement** on 21 October 1824. {{Toc}} Joseph Aspdin (or Aspden) (1778 - 1855) was a bricklayer living in th…
    …ned in a vertical kiln and finally the calcine was to be powdered. /* event_date="21 October 1824" Portland cement is patented */ He obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824 for ** An Improvement in the Mode of Producing an A…
  46. Viagra — 2017-06-01 14:56:53
    …yrimidinone class were useful in treating heart problems such as angina. Nicholas Terrett was named in the 1991 British patent for Sildenafil (tradenamed Viagra) as a heart medicine. === Terrett 1994 === {{image url="Viagra.jpg" title="Viagra pi…
    … named as the inventors of the process by which Viagra was created. Their names appeared on an application by Pfizer to patent (WOWO9849166A1) the manufacturing process of Viagra or its [[Medical]] name, Sildenafil Citrate.…
  47. Fire Extinguisher — 2017-06-01 10:14:02
    …ry]] Captain **George William Manby** was born 28 November 1765 in Denver, [[Norfolk]]. In **1813** Manby invented and patented the "**Extincteur**", the first portable pressurised fire extinguisher. == Design == {{Image url="AntiqueFireExtingu…
    …assium carbonate) solution contained within compressed air. == Earlier == The first fire extinguisher, of a sort, was patented in 1723 by **Ambrose Godfrey **from [[England]]. His idea was more of a 'sledge hammer' approach. It consisted of a c…
  48. Steam Engine — 2017-05-23 20:30:35
    …ovell Edgeworth''', a member of the Lunar Society. In **1769** '''James Watt''', another member of the Lunar Society, **patented** the first significant improvements to the Newcomen type vacuum engine that made it much more fuel efficient. Watt's…
    …ss="right" width="" title="James Watt" }} Watt, together with his business partner **Matthew Boulton**, developed these patents into the Watt steam engine in Birmingham, England. The increased efficiency of the **Boulton & Watt** engine finally l…
  49. Match — 2017-05-18 18:53:27
    …ick anywhere. {{Image url="JohnWalkerLights.jpg" class="left" title="John Walker Lights" width="200" }} Walker did not patent his **"Friction Light"** matches, preferring instead to pursue his scientific studies, he did not consider his inventi…
    …on important enough to patent. Also he did not divulge the exact composition of his matches, wanting to improve it. == To Market == {{Image url="C…
    …n 1829, Scots inventor Sir Isaac Holden invented an improved version of Walker's match. A version of Holden's match was patented by Samuel Jones, and these were sold as //lucifer// matches. …
  50. Cat Eyes — 2017-05-17 09:02:28
    … '''cat's eye''' comes from Shaw's inspiration for the device: the light reflecting from the eyes of a cat. In 1934, he patented his invention (patent No. 436,290 and 457,536), and on **March 15, 1935**, founded Reflecting Roadstuds Limited in Ha…
  51. Sewing Machine — 2017-05-16 10:54:29
    … the hands of Singer's lawyers years earlier. It was too late for him to claim recompense on the grounds that the later patents were worthless but he got his revenge in a remarkable way. He built a replica of a Saint machine made from the drawing…
    …s submitted with the patent. He proved it worked. He then booked space at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia right next to the Howe ex…
  52. Telephone — 2017-05-16 10:26:05
    …ause Bell had the patent, he had the right to be the only one to produce telephones in the U.S. for the next 19 years. The unit used to measure …
  53. iPod — 2017-05-14 23:49:13
    …ngular screen and a central menu button to scroll through a selection of music tracks – very similar to the iPod. == Patent == He took out a worldwide patent and set up a company to develop the idea. But in 1988, after a boardroom split, he …
    …was unable to raise the £60,000 needed to renew patents across 120 countries and the technology became public property. == In Court == {{image url="IXI.jpg" width="300" clas…
    …s="right"}} Apple used Mr Kramer’s patents and drawings to defend itself in the legal wrangle in 2007. A staggering 163 million iPods have been sold since the d…
  54. Meccano — 2017-05-14 01:23:25
    …em together with nuts and bolts. By the end of 1900 Hornby had built a set of parts he considered worth marketing. == Patent 1901 == On advice, he patented his invention in January 1901 as "**Improvements in Toy or Educational Devices for Child…
  55. Plywood — 2016-10-19 10:55:12
    …ck-making. In 1793 Bentham took out what has been called //"one of the most remarkable patents ever issued by the British Patents Office"//, because it automated the whole process of woodworking machinery for maki…
  56. Internal Combustion Engine — 2016-08-23 10:46:47
    … title="First Rudolph Diesel motor" width="200" }} Rudolph Diesel engine was developed from around 1897. Akroyd filed a patent infringement against Diesel. But the secret of Diesel's engine was superior compression and torque and it was designed …
  57. Tank — 2016-05-16 11:27:53
    …cturer. Hornsby's chief engineer , **David Roberts**, developed a **Caterpillar track** system for vehicles that was **patented in 1904**. This was demonstrated to the British Army. Due to a lack of interest he sold the patent to Holt & Co. (pr…
  58. Pneumatic Tyre — 2016-05-12 16:10:13
    …ricycle more comfortable by fitting it with inflated tubes, made of canvas and bonded together with liquid rubber. == Patent == He patented this idea on 7 December **1888**, using the word 'pneumatic' for the first time [See below] , in the sam…
    …o catch on. == Onlooker == The paper manufacturer, Harvey du Cros, who was in the crowd at the time, bought Dunlop's patents in 1896 for £3000. Dunlop had in the meantime moved to Dublin, where he manufactured bicycle frames in collaboration …
    …lier == This was not the first time someone had tried making inflatable tyres. Another Scot, Robert William Thomson had patented the idea in 1846 (Dunlop was unaware of this patent). …
  59. Vacuum Tube — 2016-05-11 11:46:26
    …], [[England]] invented the first **thermionic valve** or vacuum tube, or just **valve** as it was known. He received a patent on November 16, 1904. == What they do == {{Image url="Valvediode.png" class="right" title="Valve diode" width="200" }}…
  60. Pay Toilet — 2016-05-10 16:55:15
    … was produced by the Maskelyne British Typewriter and Manufacturing Company Ltd of London from 1889, two years before a patent was issued. == Writing == In 1894, Maskelyne wrote the book Sharps and Flats: A Complete Revelation of the Secrets of …
  61. Automatic watch — 2016-03-06 00:37:12
    … === Invented in 1923 by John Harwood (1893 – 1964), a watch repairer from Bolton [[Lancashire]] who took out a **UK patent** with his financial backer, Harry Cutts, on 7 July 1923, and obtained a corresponding **Swiss patent** on 16 October 1…

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