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  1. Silicone — 2020-09-22 23:25:26
    …ick Kipping" birth_date="16/8/1863" death_date="1/5/1949" width="300" class="right" }} {{{toc}}} Professor **Frederick Stanley Kipping** FRS (1863-1949) was an English chemist who was born near Manchester, [[Lancashire]], [[England]]. he pion…
  2. Guillotine — 2020-09-14 11:10:53
    …== The Halifax Gibbet was a menacing wooden structure made of two wooden uprights, with an horizontal beam and braces, standing 15ft tall. The cutting blade was axe shaped weighing 7lb 12 oz, attached to the bottom of a massive wooden block th…
  3. Plastic — 2020-08-21 09:26:58
    …idue left after the evaporation of the solvent of photographic collodion was a “hard, horny elastic and waterproof substance.” In 1856, he patented the process of waterproofing woven fabrics by the use of such materials. {{Image url="Alexan…
  4. Glastonbury Festival — 2020-08-20 21:47:36
    …[1900s]] {{toc}} Glastonbury is the **largest** greenfield festival in the **world**. === Michael Eavis 1970 === Athelstan Joseph Michael Eavis was born in Pilton, [[Somerset]] [[England]] on 17 October 1935. After his father died in 1954, E…
  5. Eraser — 2020-08-18 10:06:20
    …mpetition. The invention was described by [[Carbonated_water| Joseph Priestley]] on April 15, 1770: "I have seen a substance excellently adapted to the purpose of wiping from paper the mark of black-lead-pencil. ... It is sold by Mr. Nairne, …
  6. WorldWideWeb — 2020-08-17 17:38:15
    … everywhere was linked and available to anyone anywhere. The concept of the Hypertext links, allow the reader to jump instantly from one electronic document to another. Berners-Lee had already used this format when he wrote Enquire. == Small B…
  7. Hydraulics — 2020-08-17 13:24:35
    … Bramah Press == The hydraulic press uses Pascal's principle from 1647, that pressure throughout a closed system is constant. This was known for some time but no one had realised how effective and compact a machine could be until the Bramah Pr…
    … **[[Hydroelectric_Power| William George Armstrong]]** who in 1845 set in motion a scheme to provide piped water from distant reservoirs to the households of **Newcastle**. This worked well, so well there was excess water pressure in the lower…
  8. Underwater Tunnel — 2020-08-17 09:16:28
    …position miners were hired from coal mines and the tunnel excavation began. During the building work in 1826 the assistant engineer fell ill and was replaced by Brunels son, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. {{Image url="ThamesTunnelOpen.jpg" class…
  9. Stevenson Screen — 2020-08-17 08:38:43
    … and meteorologist Sir Thomas Stevenson (1818-1887), the father of Robert Louis Stevenson. The Stevenson Screen is the standard used by the World Meteorological Organization. The screens contain a dry bulb thermometer and a wet bulb thermomet…
  10. Cyclonic Vacuum Cleaner — 2020-08-15 09:18:21
    …[[England]]. In 1978, while vacuuming his home, James Dyson realized his bag [[Vacuum_Cleaner| vacuum cleaner]] was constantly losing suction. He noticed how dust quickly clogged the dust bag blocking the airflow, so that suction dropped rap…
  11. Telegraph — 2020-08-15 08:59:24
    …r old. His uncle from London took him to view the telegraph in Mr Ronalds' garden. Charles Wheatstone was one of the outstanding academics of the 19th Century. He worked in his fathers music shop in Gloucester then in London developing musical …
    …ght to point to letters. This meant anyone could read the message being sent, no need for anyone to be trained in understanding codes, like the Morse system. === Morse === On learning of this first electrical telegraph success from the newsp…
    …hic apparatus in Europe. He could see that this system needed a 5 core cable which would prove too expensive for the distances involved in the USA. ::c:: == Britain and Beyond == The success of the Cooke Wheatstone Telegraph led to the laying…
  12. Jet Engine — 2020-08-15 08:35:25
    … Whittle in the town of Gloucester. Not much of a likeness to the great man, I guess it would be called artistic. He is standing on a his invention looking skyward. {{Image url="WhittleArches.jpg" width="320" class="left" title="Whittle Arch i…
  13. Radio — 2020-08-09 19:56:54
    …rtzian waves" (radio waves). == 1894 == British physicist Oliver Lodge transmitted and received "Hertzian waves" at distances up to 50 yards. == 1894 == {{Image url="MarconiRadio.jpg" title="Marconi Radio" class="right" width="250" }} **Gug…
    …was brought up by his mother in the English town of Bedford. In Italy he was able to transmit signals over a hill, a distance of approximately 1.5 miles. Finding little interest or appreciation for his work in Italy, Marconi traveled to London…
    …iment witnessed a message transversed over the Bristol Channel from Flat Holm Island to Lavernock Point in Penarth, a distance of **3.7 miles**. The message read "**Are you ready**". The English channel was crossed on 27 March **1899**, from Wi…
  14. Plastic Surgery — 2020-08-06 08:24:01
    …ed a //flap technique//, one of the first modern sex reassignment from male to female on Roberta Cowell, it became the standard procedure for 40 years. …
  15. Greenwich Meridian — 2020-08-06 08:03:21
    …est clockmaker and set these clocks to the local time, Greenwich Mean Time. Flamsteed’s catalogue of stars become the standard reference work for plotting star positions based on Greenwich time. Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal 1765 to 1…
  16. FAX — 2020-06-29 16:56:13
    …e demonstrated at the 1851 World's Fair in London. Many improvements came along and eventually the FAX machine became standard office equipment by the 1980s. It is still widely used but it's future looks a short one with computers now the fa…
  17. Antiseptic — 2020-02-25 13:12:39
    … before and after operations with 5% carbolic acid solutions. Instruments were also washed in the same solution and assistants sprayed the solution in the operating theatre. == Little Organisms == As the "germ theory of disease" became more wi…
  18. Intraocular Lens — 2020-02-25 13:08:31
    …**. The operation was **televised**, another first, so that other ophthalmologists in the hospital could watch. == Resistance == In 1951, Harold Ridley announced the operation to an ophthalmological congress at Oxford. The news provoked **in…
  19. Underground Railway — 2019-10-23 19:35:16
    …would be worth around £10 million today. In its first year it carried more than nine million passengers! It was an outstanding success and soon it would be the envy of other capital cities around the world who all wanted their own **Metro**. …
  20. Atomic Clock — 2019-09-01 00:59:46
    …which used the electrically induced vibrations of a quartz crystal to measure time. The clock soon become the industry standard for time measurement at observatories throughout the world. {{Image url="AtomicClock.jpg" class="left" title="Jack…
  21. Angus Cattle — 2019-08-31 10:40:52
    …breeders. **Hugh Watson** became tenant of Keillor in Angus in 1808. He gathered stock widely and produced cattle of outstanding quality and character. Hugh Watson could be considered the founder of the breed, and was instrumental in selecting …
  22. DNA — 2019-06-01 23:11:41
    …ing’s college, London''', to work on an x-ray picture of DNA taken by a graduate student Raymond Gosling, Wilkins assistant. In the November of 1951 Franklin gave a departmental seminar to bring the unit up to date on what she had achieved so…
    …ass="left" width="300" title="Demonstrating the DNA model" }} Unperturbed, Crick and Watson using some underhanded assistance gained enough information to started building their DNA model on Wednesday, 4th March and finished in the evening of …
  23. Agatha Christie — 2019-04-08 16:51:39
    …**1920**. **Poirot** and **Miss Marple** are Christie's most well-known detectives. Agatha was one of Britain's first stand-up surfers. Christie did not have a formal education and taught herself to read. She wrote more than 70 detective nov…
  24. Railway — 2019-02-19 15:36:10
    … engineer for the Manchester & Leeds, Birmingham & Derby, Normanton & York and Sheffied & Rotherham railways. He was constantly innovating, constantly improving his engines and the tracks. He was so successful that he was able to purchase Tapt…
  25. KitKat — 2019-02-05 19:53:39
    …oduced with a plain chocolate covering due to shortages of milk after the war. It reverted back to red in 1947 when the standard milk chocolate KitKat was reintroduced. == Record Breaker == In 2010 the Guinness Book of Records certified #%Kit…
  26. Stan Laurel — 2019-01-14 16:14:46
    …two-reel comedies. After the making of his first film, //Nuts in May//, Universal offered him a contract. {{Image url="StanLaurelBplaque.jpg" class="right" title="Stan Laurel blue plaque" width="300" }} == Pairing == In 1927, Laurel and Olive…
  27. Antibiotics — 2018-08-25 00:36:50
    …r Fleming 1928 === ~-[[CategoryScience]]::[[Medical]] On the 3 September **1928** Fleming discovered an antibiotic substance and named it Penicillin, from the mould **Penicillium notatum**. /* event_date="3 September 1928" Fleming discovers a…
    … in his laboratory at St. Mary’s Hospital in [[London]] when almost by accident, he discovered a naturally growing substance that could attack certain bacteria. Fleming observed colonies of the common** Staphylococcus aureus **bacteria that h…
  28. Public Park — 2018-08-24 15:01:46
    …ied many of its features. It was designed by '''Sir Joseph Paxton''' and opened in '''**1847**'''. It soon became an instant economic and social success. Paxton's concept was to create an idealised countryside landscape of open meadows and nat…
  29. Toilet — 2018-07-24 21:40:11
    …rgh (1732-1814). He invented the 'S'-shaped trap in 1775 and was the first to patent the flushing water closet. It used standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer, and used a sliding valve. …
  30. Sunday School — 2018-06-28 10:48:46
    …uces Crime == {{Image url="Robert-raikes-glos-statue.jpg" class="right" title="Robert Raikes statue Gloucester. Another stands in London and Toronto" width="300" }} The movement began in **July 1780** in the home of a Mrs Meredith. Within a sho…
  31. Miss World — 2018-06-27 12:49:19
    …== Miss World == Morley had arranged the beauty event as a one-off for the **Festival of Britain.** A total of 26 contestants competed for the title. The event was called a Bikini Contest to promote the //new// swimsuit of the time. The press…
  32. Four-minute Mile — 2018-03-04 19:41:50
    …ssed an unofficial timekeeper at the 1,500-metre mark in 3 minutes 43 seconds, equaling the world’s record for that distance. Bannister pushed on to the mile and passed the finish line. As soon as the first part of his score was announced **…
  33. English Language — 2018-01-26 21:45:55
    …ibia (with Afrikaans) </li><li>Nauru (with Nauruan) </li><li><strong>New Zealand</strong> </li><li>Nigeria </li><li>Pakistan (with Urdu) </li><li>Papua New Guinea </li><li>Philippines (with Tagalog) </li><li>Puerto Rico (with Spanish) </li><li>…
  34. Worcestershire Sauce — 2018-01-13 11:02:07
    …kely that **Lea & Perrins** needed to make their sauce seem unique and possibly invented the events to make their sauce stand out from the competition. == Commercial Production == {{Image url="JohnWheeleyLea.jpg" class="left" title="John Whee…
  35. Powered Flight — 2017-11-11 21:00:20
    …trialed his plane for powered flight. Percy arranged for a demonstration of his powered flight to some dignitaries at Stanford Hall on 30th September in **1899**, but sadly due to an engine failure, Pilcher, had to resort to flying his Hawk g…
  36. Light Bulb — 2017-11-08 12:25:58
    …fice, on October 6, 1889, a judge ruled that the electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. Unfortunately further research exposed in A Streak of Luck by Robert Conot (1979), also shows that Ediso…
    … used huge batteries to pass current through a thin strips of platinum. - 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. - 1840, Warren de la Rue used a platinum coil in an evacuated…
  37. Cambridge Cream — 2017-07-10 16:58:31
    …w. Remove the cream from the heat, allow to cool slightly, then pour over the egg yolks in a steady stream, whisking constantly. Transfer this mixture to an ovenproof dish or individual ramekins and bake at 150 °C / 300 °F / Gas 2 for about …
  38. Air Traffic Control — 2017-07-06 13:23:45
    … a “controlled airspace”, a network of airway corridors that provide a safety zone for air traffic to operate in. Distances vary but aircraft that are flying along the airways under [[radar]] surveillance are kept five nautical miles apart …
  39. Emergency Telephone Number — 2017-07-06 10:16:06
    …all triggered flashing red lights and hooters to alert exchange operators to give priority to the emergency call. == Instant success == During the first week there were 1,336 calls made to **999**. That number has grown to around 560,000 call…
  40. British Empire — 2017-07-05 14:26:24
    …" }} {{Image url="FlagSGeorgiaSandwich.png" class="left" title="S.Georgia, Sandwich" width="150" }} {{Image url="FlagTristanDaCuhna.gif" class="left" title="Flag Tristan da Cuhna" width="150" }} {{Image url="FlagTurksAndCaicos.gif" class="left"…
  41. Radar — 2017-07-05 11:01:39
    …e="Radar Plaque" width="" }}::c:: Such was the secrecy that only three people witnessed the test, Watson-Watt, his assistant Arnold Wilkins, and a single member of the committee, A.P. Rowe. The demonstration was a success: on several occasions…
    … a clear signal was seen from the bomber. Most importantly, the prime minister, **Stanley Baldwin**, was kept quietly informed of radar's progress. == Increasing the Range == Only two weeks later Wilkins l…
    …pact source of short-wave radio waves and allowed Fighter Command to detect incoming enemy planes from a much greater distance. == Microwaves == The invention of the **Magnetron** directly led to the invention of the **Microwave Oven.** In 19…
  42. Theodolite — 2017-07-05 08:57:22
    …ted the reflecting telescope, or the refracting telescope as part of his theodolite to improve the accuracy over long distances of his surveying works. As referenced in his 1591 book //Pantometria//. …
  43. Pub — 2017-06-28 14:28:26
    …itle="A pint of British beer" width="200" }} The use of **pint** for beer dates back to 1215 when a measure for ale was standardised in the Magna Carter. The word **Inn** is derived from the Saxon meaning room. At one time each establishment wa…
  44. YMCA — 2017-06-21 14:24:38
    … 1905) was born on a farm in Dulverton, [[Somerset]], [[England]]. George came to London in 1841 to work as a sales assistant in a draper's shop. Many people lived in unhealthy social conditions in the big cities at the end of the Industrial R…
  45. Mayday — 2017-06-19 21:40:16
    …Mayday :: {{Databox caption="Creator" image="Head.jpg" Who="Frederick Stanley Mockford" width="200" birth_date="Dec 08 1897" birth_place="Holly Lodge, Seaford" death_date="Mar 01 1962" death_p…
    …lace="Chelmsford" }} === Frederick Stanley Mockford 1923 === ~-[[CategoryTransport]] The international distress call 'Mayday' was devised by Mockford 1923. Pi…
  46. Scouts — 2017-06-15 01:16:10
    … Baden-Powell created the **Scout** movement in August 1907. He was born **Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell** at 9 Stanhope Street, Paddington in [[London]], was a decorated soldier, talented artist and actor. {{{toc}}} == War Hero == '''…
  47. Wellington Boot — 2017-05-29 13:46:08
    …nce. With the First World War being fought in the trenches the company was commissioned to produce millions of pairs as standard kit for ordinary soldiers, to prevent ‘trench foot’. == Leader == The Duke was twice British prime minister a…
  48. Television — 2017-05-29 13:40:11
    …2 he was the first to demonstrate ultra-short wave transmission. == Live Sport == In 1927 Baird transmitted a long-distance television signal over 438 miles of telephone line between London and Glasgow. He then set up the Baird Television De…
  49. Police — 2017-05-22 22:57:53
    … ''''Bobbies'''' after their founder, and wore a dark blue '''long coat''' and a '''tall hat''' which they could use to stand on to look over walls, a pair of '''handcuffs''' and a '''wooden rattle''' to raise the alarm. By the 1880s this rattl…
    … of the use of physical force. ~1) Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. ~1) Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secur…
  50. Match — 2017-05-18 18:53:27
    …wn which would ignite, but with a sudden explosion, it had not been possible to transmit the flame to a slow-burning substance like wood. He used wooden sticks coated with sulphur and tipped with a paste mixture of sulphide of antimony, chlora…
  51. Sewing Machine — 2017-05-16 10:54:29
    …ith the words "Elias Howe, inventor of the sewing machine 1846" emblazoned across the façade. Next to it, on a smaller stand, was just one machine that replica and the words Thomas Saint, inventor of the sewing machine, 1790. */ == Links == …
  52. Meccano — 2017-05-14 01:23:25
    …rnby became partners. ::c:: == Into Production == {{Image url="Meccano_logo.jpg" width="600" }} With the financial assistance of his partner, "**Mechanics Made Easy**" sets went on sale in 1902. Each set had only 16 different parts with a leaf…
  53. Workmate — 2017-05-10 00:13:27
    …"Classic Lotus Elan designed by Ron Hickman" }} But after he began manufacturing the Workmate® workbench. It was an instant hit. Black & Decker saw the potential and took on exclusive rights of the Workmate in 1973 and started production. To…
  54. Vacuum Flask — 2017-05-02 15:07:40
    …ed for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. It was also used in the .303 British, Mark I and II, standard rifle cartridge between 1891 and 1915. Cordite has been used since World War I till around the end of the 20th cen…
  55. MRI Scan — 2017-02-10 08:41:04
    …Sir Peter’s early work was in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), then being used to study the chemical structure of substances. He joined the Department of Physics, University of Nottingham, in 1964, and by the early 1970s was working on the a…
  56. Marmite — 2017-01-18 16:21:10
    …* {{{toc}}} == The Process == The basic raw material used in the manufacture of MARMITE is spent brewer's yeast, a substance whose original and only use was to ferment sugars into alcohol. For many years this by-product of the brewing process…
    …s '100% meat and fat free' so it is suitable for **vegetarians**. If you know a fussy person who says 'Oh no, I can't stand Marmite' offer them a '**Twiglet**', most people quite happily eat a Twiglet even though they are coated in a yeast ex…
  57. Sport — 2016-06-23 13:22:23
    …length and all players chased the ball for the whole of the game. London's '''Wimbledon Hockey Club''' (organized 1883) standardized the game after the many centuries of informal play in England and it thereafter spread to other countries, part…
    …on, Badminton became its official name. In 1887 the modern rules were laid down. The Bath Badminton Club was setup and standardized the rules, that still guide the sport today. In 1895, the Badminton Association (of England) was formed to take…
  58. Industrial Revolution — 2016-06-23 12:25:37
    … seen. This **world first iron bridge** is over the river Severn at a place now called Ironbridge. This bridge is still standing and can be visited to this day. Abraham Darby III took over the family business in the 1770s. As it grew, he attra…
  59. Banoffi Pie — 2016-05-24 14:24:02
    …try 1.5 tins condensed milk (13.5 ounces each) 1.5 pounds firm bananas 375ml of double cream Half a teaspoon powdered instant coffee 1 dessertspoon caster sugar A little freshly ground coffee **Preparation** ~- Preheat the oven to gas mark 5 (…
    …ool completely before opening. ~- Inside you will find the soft toffee filling. **Method** ~- Whip the cream with the instant coffee and sugar until thick and smooth. ~- Now spread the toffee over the base of the flan. ~- Peel and halve the b…
  60. Loch Ness Monster — 2016-05-24 13:01:48
    …sie” in Scottish history, dating back to around** A.D. 500**. When local Picts carved a strange aquatic creature into standing stones near Loch Ness. The earliest written reference to a monster in Loch Ness is a 7th-century biography of Sai…
  61. Pay Toilet — 2016-05-10 16:55:15
    … Sharps and Flats: A Complete Revelation of the Secrets of Cheating at Games of Chance and Skill. This book became an instant hit and to this day is considered to be a classic gambling book.…
  62. English Bible — 2016-03-26 11:59:47
    …ughout the Christian world, and translation of the Latin Bible into the vernacular, or local language anyone could understand, was actively discouraged because this eroded control. {{Image url="Tyndale_Monument.jpg" class="left" title="Tyndale…
  63. Golf — 2016-03-10 15:18:45
    …me today. {{Image url="Golf-Rory-Mcilroy.jpg" class="right" title="Golf Rory Mcilroy" width="200" }} {{Image url="Golf_StAndrews.jpg" class="right" title="Golf St Andrews" width="300" }}…

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