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  1. Underground Railway — 2019-10-23 19:35:16
    …’s creation. Unfortunately he never got to see his dream as he died of dropsy on 14 September 1862, only a few months before his brainchild came to life. == Huge project == Using Victorian ingenuity and technical engineering expertise an elabo…
  2. Lawn Mower — 2019-10-04 13:03:35
    …er ten years and further innovations to create a machine that could be worked by donkey or horse power, and sixty years before a steam-powered lawnmower was built. == Links == [[https://www.thebuddingfoundation.co.uk | The Budding Foundation. ]]…
  3. Obstetrical Forceps — 2019-09-01 13:59:25
    …ence of the forceps existence is only found later from around 1634, but is known the brothers carried out the procedure before then. The secret was passed down through the family. {{Image url="ChamberlenForceps" class="left" title="Chamberlen f…
  4. Rubber — 2019-08-10 12:09:55
    …cess of vulcanising rubber is usually associated with Charles Goodyear, but the process was being used and was patented before Mr Goodyear made his 'discovery'. Thomas Hancock (1786-1865) was born at Marlborough in [[Wiltshire]], [[England]], th…
  5. Stem Cells — 2019-06-01 23:13:53
    …agram showing how stem cells are used." width="550" }} Our body is made up of cells that have many different functions. Before a cell becomes an adult cell they begin as an embryonic cell. Embryo cells can reproduce themselves or become adult ce…
  6. Vitamins — 2019-06-01 23:10:23
    …d a resident appointment at the Metropolitan Hospital, and then spent several years in general practice in **Coventry** before entering the **Malayan Medical Service** in 1903. ::c:: == The Missing Nutrients == {{image url="Fletcher-1907-report…
    …y Australians call us **Pomes** (Pomegranates). But Lind had made the link between vitamins and health almost 200 years before Fletcher. /* event_date="May 1747" James Lind conducted the first clinical trial to confirm that citrus fruits could c…
  7. Paternoster — 2018-09-18 13:06:34
    … moderate speed. The name comes from the Latin for ''Our Father', which begins the Lord's Prayer and maybe good advice before you attempt to board the lift. == Patents == {{Image url="OrielChambers.jpg" class="right grow" title="Oriel Chambers"…
  8. Sandwich — 2018-09-10 00:07:48
    …hing or someone is stuck between two other objects they are said to be 'sandwiched'. I wonder what expression they used before the ''sandwich'' was born? <<{{Image url="Sandwichsign.jpg" title="A road sign to Ham & Sandwich" width="250" }}<< …
  9. Antibiotics — 2018-08-25 00:36:50
    … life” but the life in this case is harmful microbes. Although some advances in antibiotics had occurred a few years before this date none of these had impact that penicillin did, Fleming started the Antibiotic era. == Penicillin == British s…
  10. TV Black and White Kiss — 2018-08-24 01:20:10
    …t race, class and insecurity in Britain, and contains the first interracial kiss to be shown on TV. This was six years before **Kirk** kissed Uhura in **Star Trek** and that was beaten anyway by the British drama Emergency Ward 10 in 1964. Ther…
    …e had been other interracial kisses on TV before this but in days of black and white (monochrome) broadcasting a clinch between perhaps a cuban and a white person was e…
  11. IVF — 2018-08-08 09:39:25
    …78, in Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, [[England]]. Louise Brown recently stated: “A few years ago, just before she died, my mum realised that every blood relative she had in the world - me, my sister Natalie, her grandchildren - h…
    …ith first baby " width="250" }} == A Great Team == Both Steptoe and Edwards worked in the field of reproductive health before their collaboration in 1966, they were especially interested in problems of human fertility. Edwards had developed a wa…
  12. Toilet — 2018-07-24 21:40:11
    …voided the problem of leaks common with the earlier floating valve system. Apparently the term to 'have a crap' existed before Mr Crapper's contribution to the Flush Toilet. {{image url="Highlevel.jpg" title="High level Toilet" width="120" }} …
  13. Sunday School — 2018-06-28 10:48:46
    …757 he inherited his fathers publishing business, becoming proprietor of the **Gloucester Journal**. == Sweatshops == Before the Sunday School movement children would work 12 hours a day or longer in the mills and sweatshops 5 or 6 days a week.…
    …t waited a few years to see if **Sunday schools** were a success. He then printed a story about the new Sunday schools. Before too long, around 4,000 new Sunday schools were started in towns all over [[England]]. Robert even used his printing pre…
  14. Phototherapy — 2018-06-01 00:20:45
    …00" }} A short while after this incident a tube of blood from an infant with severe jaundice was placed on a windowsill before being taken to the lab for analysis. After sitting in the sun, the sample measurements were below 14 mg/100 mL so a f…
  15. Jet Engine — 2018-05-28 18:47:28
    …d of the war, Whittle's efforts resulted in engines that would transform world transport shrinking the globe like never before. {{Image url="Motorized-jet-engine.jpg" class="left" width="200" title="Whittle Jet engine" }} Whittle was born in Ea…
    …inistry enough to fund development with a contract for £6,000 to develop a flyable version. Nevertheless it was a year before all of the funds were available, greatly delaying development. There were many delays and the lack of funding slowed t…
    …craft Company) for an aircraft to test Whittles jet engine. Rover was unable to deliver the first W.1 production engine before Gloster's experimental airframe was ready. So manufacturing started at GAC Brockworth near Gloucester, but was later m…
  16. Worcestershire Sauce — 2018-01-13 11:02:07
    … banished their brew to the cellar. There, the sauce lay forgotten until the pair stumbled upon it two years later. Before they discarded their concoction for good, they took one last taste. Much to their surprise, it had matured like a fine…
  17. Powered Flight — 2017-11-11 21:00:20
    …influenced by Chanute. {{Image url="Strngflw2.jpg" class="right" width="300" title="Rear view of his plane" }} ::cl:: Before he died 1883 Stringfellow had this to say ^^"Somebody must do better than I before we succeed with aerial navigation."…
    …x Image="PercyPilcher.jpg" title="Percy Pilcher" birth_date="16 January 1866" death_date="2 October 1899" }} Four years before the Wright brothers, Pilcher, born in Bath [[Somerset]] in 1866, had constructed his own tri-wing aeroplane. Pilcher h…
    …injured, robbing him, and the world, of the first manned powered flight. Percy died days later on the 2nd October 1899 before he could display his powered triplane. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9nwSCKq_Do Video of Pilcher in flight]] [[ht…
  18. Antiseptic — 2017-10-22 20:52:56
    … infections and made surgery safer for patients. Lister was appalled that a surgeon was not required to wash his hands before operating on a patient. Surgeons at the time took pride in the accumulated blood stains on their unwashed operating gow…
    … of 6 articles, running from March through July 1867. He instructed surgeons to wear clean gloves and wash their hands before and after operations with 5% carbolic acid solutions. Instruments were also washed in the same solution and assistants …
  19. Stereo — 2017-09-28 17:47:43
    …London]], [[England]] invented //stereophonic sound// recording and transmission in 1931. {{toc}} == At the Talkies == Before Blumleins invention audio was captured in mono for cinema movies and the emerging television industry. While at the ci…
  20. Salicylic acid — 2017-07-24 10:14:37
    …rend Stone wrote to George Parker, second earl of Macclesfield, and president of the **Royal Society** in a letter read before the Royal Society on June 2, 1763, describing the use of dried willow bark as a remedy for fevers and agues. This landm…
  21. Refrigeration — 2017-07-11 11:55:35
    …cooling fluids." It took around 150 years, 1000's of patents and ice that was contaminated from industrial pollution, before people began using refrigerators.…
  22. Cambridge Cream — 2017-07-10 16:58:31
    …00 °F / Gas 2 for about 30 minutes, until set. Leave to cool and refrigerate for a couple of hours. A couple of hours before serving, preheat the grill to its highest temperature. Sprinkle the remaining sugar over the top of the cream, coating …
  23. Vaccination — 2017-07-09 10:30:27
    …een on fossil collecting and horticulture. He died on 26 January 1823. == Infant Killer == In the eighteenth century, before Jenner, smallpox was a killer disease, as widespread as cancer or heart disease in the twentieth century but with the d…
  24. Modern Farming — 2017-07-03 12:19:17
    …6" }}<< Jethro Tull wrote a book “**Horse hoeing husbandry**” for farmers but it would take almost a hundred years before farmers widely adopted his proposals and technologies. He wrote the book in **1731**. Jethro advocated the use of horse…
  25. Steel — 2017-06-28 14:56:51
    …ing** steel inexpensively in 1856. Until the Bessemer-process steel making was slow and labour intensive. {{TOC}} == Before Steel == Before cheap steel wrought iron was used for construction. The furnaces heated molten iron, it was then stirr…
    …ft" title="Steel beams made Eiffel Tower possible" width="300" }} It was then worked with a forge hammer by the puddler before being rolled into sheets or rails. By 1860, there were over 3000 puddling furnaces in Britain, but the process was slow…
  26. ATM — 2017-06-27 19:28:18
    …. Customers placed the cheque into a drawer, the machine detected and matched the cheque against a number code entered before paying out a maximum of £10. == Recognition == Shepherd-Barron's machine trail-blazed the industry to improve the te…
  27. Sparkling Wine — 2017-06-11 14:08:47
    …in English, not French. This was in '''1676 by Sir George Etherege''' who found 'The Elixir of Life'. This was decades before Dom Pérignon who is traditionally considered to have invented sparkling wine in Champagne around 1697 when he declared…
  28. Australia — 2017-05-23 20:11:59
    … == Terra Australis == The continent was named after //Terra Australis//, Latin for South Land, had appeared on maps before its discovery. The North-West area was first sighted by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and recorded as New Holland not …
  29. Shakespeare — 2017-05-23 20:00:55
    …r 1700 of our common English words by changing nouns into verbs, changing verbs into adjectives, connecting words never before used together, adding prefixes and suffixes, and devising new words and coining many now-common expressions. <<{{amazo…
  30. Hip Replacement — 2017-05-23 19:59:08
    …August 1982" }} {{Toc}} The first successful Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was carried out by John Charnley in 1963. Before Sir John's work, there had been partial hip replacements, known as hemiarthroplasties. Sir John Charnley, tested mater…
    …ials in his own legs to ensure they worked before implanting them in a patient. Sir John and his team had created a clean-air system to protect patients during operation…
  31. Split the Atom — 2017-05-20 11:31:05
    …the world's first nuclear-particle accelerator in 1929. Rutherford had split the atom in Manchester more than ten years before. He wanted more control over the particles used to penetrate nuclei. He directed Cockcroft and Walton to build a high v…
  32. Telephone — 2017-05-16 10:26:05
    …mit the human voice. Elisha Gray claims he too invented the telephone, but Bell got to the patent office an hour or so before he did. It is said that Antonio Meucci also succeeded with the invention before Bell. Because Bell had the patent, he…
  33. Christmas Cracker — 2017-01-16 15:55:55
    …racker is born == {{Image url="TomSmithCrackerPoster.jpg" class="left" title="Tom Smith Cracker cover from 1906.\nSanta before Coca-Cola invented him!" width="400" }} Eureka! Now it all came together. The tube to hold the toy, a corny joke and a …
  34. Dinosaur — 2016-10-24 00:25:22
    …d Plot** had discovered this dinosaur's femur, which he called //"Scrotum humanum"//, in **1627**, nearly two centuries before.…
  35. Lasagne — 2016-08-28 14:46:37
    …l="Lasagne.jpg" class="left" title="Lasagne" width="" }} Modern lasagne has tomatoes but it would be 200 hundred years before Europeans even saw a tomato. Medieval broth refered to both meat or vegetable stew like preperations.…
  36. Internal Combustion Engine — 2016-08-23 10:46:47
    … great advances. His two stroke engine was so constructed that the mixture of gas and air was compressed motor cylinder before ignition by an 'ignition cock' to explode the mixture. ~i)1878: Dugald Clerk designed the first two-stroke engine with …
  37. Procter Gamble — 2016-07-28 14:08:46
    …. His family emigrated to Canada in 1819. Eventually settling in Cincinnati, Ohio. There he apprenticed to a soap-maker before setting up his own business in the late 1828. == Chance Meeting == {{Image url="ProcterGambleSoap.jpg" class="right" …
  38. Banoffi Pie — 2016-05-24 14:24:02
    …l for 3 hours making sure that the pan does not boil dry. ~- Remove the tin from the water and allow to cool completely before opening. ~- Inside you will find the soft toffee filling. **Method** ~- Whip the cream with the instant coffee and suga…
  39. Automatic Kettle — 2016-05-17 16:47:22
    …the more elegant K2, a modestly curvaceous design originally produced in spun copper and polished chrome. ===1955=== Before this kettle was introduced in 1955, boiling water by electricity could be a hazardous affair. Not only did some early e…
  40. Pneumatic Tyre — 2016-05-12 16:10:13
    …op 1888 === {{toc}} Dunlop (1840 to 1921) was born in [[Ayrshire]], [[Scotland]] and qualified as a veterinary surgeon before moving to Belfast in 1867. His practice was at 50 Gloucester Street, Belfast, [[Ireland]]. His great invention, of the…
  41. Pay Toilet — 2016-05-10 16:55:15
    …itain. It was produced by the Maskelyne British Typewriter and Manufacturing Company Ltd of London from 1889, two years before a patent was issued. == Writing == In 1894, Maskelyne wrote the book Sharps and Flats: A Complete Revelation of the Se…
  42. Titanic — 2016-03-08 14:18:30
    …ton on her maiden voyage on Wednesday 10 April, 1912, calling at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown in southern Ireland before heading out across the Atlantic, on course for New York. It struck an iceberg on its maiden voyage from [[Hampshire]] ,…

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