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  1. Rubber — 2019-08-10 12:09:55
    … naphtha process. The two men eventually became partners in the manufacture of waterproofed items. == Patent == {{Image url="ThomasHan…
    …title="Thomas Hancock Plaque for the vulcanisation of rubber" width="400" }} **Thomas Hancock** patented in **1843**, a process whereby heating rubber and **sulphur** together at about 155'C for two hours gave a horn-like solid containing 30% sulp…
  2. Reinforced Concrete — 2018-10-10 15:00:50
    …or his servants. The method proved successful. He patented his invention in 1854 creating **reinforced concrete**. His process was in demand and went on to build the concrete platforms at York railway station, floors in abattoirs, diary and food …
  3. IVF — 2018-08-08 09:39:25
    …" class="right" title="IVF Blue Plaque" width="300" }} {{image url="IVF.jpg" class="left" title="In Vitro Fertilisation process" width="300" }}…
  4. Stainless Steel — 2018-04-01 00:54:33
    …With the help of his friend Ernest Stuart, Cutlery Manager at Mosley's Portland Works, they had perfected the hardening process for knives. Brearley wanted to call his invention ‘Rustless Steel’, but Stuart, persauded him it should be called …
  5. Plastic — 2018-01-25 10:47:21
    …rwickshire]], [[England]]. Alexander was a British chemist and inventor noted for his development of various industrial processes and materials and for having invented the first plastic that Parkes patented in **1856** ||{{{toc}}}||{{amazon type="…
    …he solvent of photographic collodion was a “hard, horny elastic and waterproof substance.” In 1856, he patented the process of waterproofing woven fabrics by the use of such materials. {{Image url="Alexander_Parkes_Blue_Plaque.jpg" class="left…
  6. Worcestershire Sauce — 2018-01-13 11:02:07
    …shire Sauce was introduced into the **USA**. It was such a success that the importer, John Duncan of New York, opened a processing plant, imported the ingredients from England and manufactured exactly according to the English formula. == Round B…
  7. Carbonated water — 2017-11-21 13:06:44
    …hanging a filled vessel over a fermentation vat at a brewery in Leeds. Fermentation vats naturally give off CO2 in the process of converting sugars into low alcohol, as in [[Sparkling_Wine]]. This initial success led to further experimentation…
    …ted water, inducing a reaction and effervescence. == To the World == Even though Priestly didn’t try to market the process commercially he did give the method and ingredients to [[Australia | Captain James Cook]] on his second voyage to the P…
  8. Light Bulb — 2017-11-08 12:25:58
    … title="Joseph Swan in his lab." width="300" }} Swan is also remembered for his contribution to photographic developing processes. He noticed that heat increased the sensitivity of the silver bromide emulsion. He later patented bromide paper, deve…
  9. Photography — 2017-08-04 11:03:18
    … making it safe to view the picture in bright light. With the negative image, Fox Talbot found he could then repeat the process of printing from the negative. He called this the **'calotype'** and patented the process in 1841. This was the basis f…
  10. Salicylic acid — 2017-07-24 10:14:37
    …vailable" Berton Roueché 1955^^ The drug works as a pain reliever because it blocks an enzyme that's required for the process of inflammatory response. Salicylic acid was discovered by the Greek physician Hippocrates in the 5th century BC. Altho…
  11. Cider — 2017-07-11 13:21:18
    … has remained popular for at least 1000 years. {{Image url="CiderApples.jpg" class="left" title="Cider Apples ready for processing" width="300" }} There is evidence of Brits making a fermented apple drink several centuries B.C. The native apple i…
  12. Horlicks — 2017-07-08 21:35:20
    …the granary at Ruardean mixing fresh milk with wort, a liquid extracted from malted barley and wheat during the brewing process. The mixture was then reduced to granules by slowly removing its moisture in a copper bain-marie floating in a boiler. …
  13. Petroleum — 2017-07-07 00:38:24
    …ched to destinations throughout the world, both to those licensing Young's patent, and to those trying to reproduce the process. Even though Young held the patent, some countries realised they had their own oil and coal reserves. In 1859, an oil …
  14. Greenwich Meridian — 2017-07-06 12:03:19
    …reference work for plotting star positions based on Greenwich time. Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal 1765 to 1811, processed Flamsteeds charts into tables that could be used by navigators and cartographers to establish positions at sea or on …
  15. Float Glass — 2017-07-04 20:28:05
    …on) as a technical officer in 1947. At this time quality plate glass could only be made by a costly and wasteful plate process that the Pilkington Brothers had also innovated. Because there was glass-to-roller contact, surfaces were marked. The g…
    … be ground and polished to produce the parallel surfaces of optical perfection to the finished product. Pilkingtons new process works by floating a piece of glass that has been rolled flat onto a bath of molten tin. The molten glass then flows unh…
    …pg" class="right" title="Shard tower, London dwarfing the beautiful St.Pauls Cathedral." width="400" }} Because of this process huge towering glass buildings are now possible, lamentably. Pilkington P.L.C. became the largest flat glass company in …
  16. Tarmac — 2017-06-30 14:08:12
    …jagged material meant tyres often punctured. And when it rained, many roads became impassable due to ruts and mud. The process was an improvement on methods used by **Thomas Telford** and Trésaguet. == Hooley is inspired == In 1901 Hooley was …
    … unintentional resurfacing had solidified the road - there was no rutting and no dust. By 1902 Hooley had patented the process of heating **tar**, adding **slag** to the mix and then breaking **stones** within the mixture to form a smooth road su…
  17. Steel — 2017-06-28 14:56:51
    …ath_place="London" }} == Henry Bessemer 1856 == ~-[[CategoryIndustry]] Sir Henry Bessemer invented the first industrial process for **mass-producing** steel inexpensively in 1856. Until the Bessemer-process steel making was slow and labour intensi…
    …e puddler before being rolled into sheets or rails. By 1860, there were over 3000 puddling furnaces in Britain, but the process was slow. == The Process == The Bessemer converter is a cylindrical steel pot approximately 20 feet high, originally w…
  18. ATM — 2017-06-27 19:28:18
    …o the conference of the American Banking Association, but received a lukewarm response and only one sale. ::c:: == The Process == Plastic bank cards with magnetic strips had still to be invented, Shepherd-Barron's early machines used special che…
  19. Sparkling Wine — 2017-06-11 14:08:47
    …h Admiral, '''Sir Robert Mansell''', while searching for a way to make coloured glass, he had invented a manufacturing process incorporating the use of iron and manganese which resulted in English glass bottles being much stronger than those bein…
    …ty in which he stated that sugar and molasses were being added to wines of all sorts to make them sparkling. Using this process the wine imported from France could be ''carbonated'' and made palatable. {{ image url="Sparkling_wine.jpg" class="lef…
    … Sir Robert Mansell obtained a monopoly on glass production in England in the early 17th century and industrialised the process; his coal-powered factories in Newcastle upon Tyne produced much stronger bottles than were available in France. As a …
  20. Viagra — 2017-06-01 14:56:53
    …area of hypertension. Instead, Pfizer decided to market the drug as an erectile enhancer. Wood and Dunn established the process to turn it into a pill and production was off. March 27th 1998, the FDA approved Viagra as the first drug to treat impo…
    …** (~£670,000,000 pounds). **Peter Dunn** and **Albert Wood** both of Kent, England are named as the inventors of the process by which Viagra was created. Their names appeared on an application by Pfizer to patent (WOWO9849166A1) the manufacturi…
    …ng process of Viagra or its [[Medical]] name, Sildenafil Citrate.…
  21. Milk of Magnesia — 2017-05-27 00:07:00
    …url="FluidMagnesia.jpg" class="left" title="Fluid Magnesia" width="" }} == Production == Murray patented a production process for ‘fluid magnesia’ as a mild laxative and antacid, setting up a factory in Belfast to produce the medicine commer…
    …cially. By-products of the process included sodium, potassium bicarbonates and silicates, which when treated with sulphuric acid could be used as an artif…
  22. Linoleum — 2017-05-25 10:14:38
    …m is Born == {{Image url="Linoleum.jpg" class="left" title="Linoleum" width="" }} **Walton** accelerated the oxidation process by heating it with lead acetate and zinc sulphate. When he mastered his //recipe// he took out a patent eventually call…
  23. Steam Engine — 2017-05-23 20:30:35
    … with opening the valves; when he grew bored and wanted to play with the other children he set up ropes to automate the process.) '''Humphrey Gainsborough''' produced a model condensing steam engine in the 1760s, which he showed to '''Richard Lov…
  24. Chocolate Bar — 2017-05-19 15:06:38
    …oseph Fry" birth_date=" 21/4/1777" birth_place="[[London]], [[England]]" death_date="28/8/1861" death_place="" }} The process of turning cocao into a tablet or bar of chocolate was first perfected in **Bristol**, [[Gloucestershire]] by **Josep…
    …200" }} == Chocolate Cream == **Fry's Chocolate Cream** bar was the game changer that launched the new smooth chocolate process and is now the //oldest chocolate confectionery bar//, and is still in production. == Easter Eggs == Fry's also inven…
  25. MRI Scan — 2017-02-10 08:41:04
    …gested gradients as a way to spatially localise NMR signals in a paper published in 1973. His method would speed up the process of producing images from an hour to a fraction of a second. A medical diagnostic application was further progressed by …
  26. Lever Brothers — 2017-02-07 11:33:36
    …s worked in their fathers small grocery business. A local Bolton chemist, **William Hough Watson**, had invented a new process to make soap, using glycerin and vegetable oils or palm oil, rather than tallow fat. In 1885 the brothers bought the sm…
  27. Marmite — 2017-01-18 16:21:10
    …on on Trent, [[Staffordshire]]. It's mission to produce a concentrated savoury spread from **beer!** {{{toc}}} == The Process == The basic raw material used in the manufacture of MARMITE is spent brewer's yeast, a substance whose original and on…
    …ly use was to ferment sugars into alcohol. For many years this by-product of the brewing process was seen as a nuisance rather than potentially valuable food source. Justus von Liebig, a German scientist, had found a…
  28. Plywood — 2016-10-19 10:55:12
    …on England" Education="Self educated" }} [[CategoryIndustry]] === Samuel Bentham 1797 === In 1797 Bentham developed a process of laminating several layers of wood veneer together with glue to form a thicker, sturdier wood sheet – he patented w…
    …hicker piece – the first description of what we now call plywood. Over fifty years later machining equipment for the process was improved by Immanuel Nobel. == Naval career == When he was 14, Bentham was apprenticed to a shipwright at Woolwic…
    …lled //"one of the most remarkable patents ever issued by the British Patents Office"//, because it automated the whole process of woodworking machinery for making blocks. A Pulley block, at this time, was one of the British Navy's biggest expense…
  29. Whisky — 2016-05-26 10:22:03
    …practiced distillation during the production of their **"uisge beatha"** (//water of life//). Through the decades the process was perfected to become the world leaders in production of quality whisky. == Enter the Thirsty Monks == {{Image url=…

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